Wednesday, 5 September 2007

1. Introduction,first telsa physics infomation for engineers

1.1 Discussion about limits
Whoever follows the public discussions concerning electro smog always sees two arguing
parties, whose standpoints lie so far apart that they inevitably talk at cross purposes and
there can be found no consensus.
On one side the "affected" find together who maintain to have found the electromagnetic
radiation as the damaging cause for their problems. They are to be taken serious, even
when only their personal sensitivity serves as means of measurement and proof and a more
or less distinct sensitivity against electromagnetic phenomena. This group occasionally
finds support of homeopaths who can base on reproducible laboratory results that fit as
few into the view of life of science as the empirical statements of affected and possibly
hurt people.
On the other side stand the representatives of the energy-supply companies and the
runners of radio networks who argue with the needs of our modern industrial society and
give "limits" prescribed to them by scientists. These, for their part, proceed according to
strictly scientific methods. Their presented results are reproducible and there's no doubt
about them.
The limits after all are fixed far below those that are recommended from a scientific
viewpoint. Nevertheless both groups are separated from consensus by powers of ten.
When we want to know how deep the ditch is we want to bridge, we should take a look at
the determined limits (Fig. 1.1).
The limits stem from the 1RPA (International Radiation Protection Association) an organ
of the World Health Organization that in turn has appointed the INIRC (International Non
Ionizing Radiation Committee). These now state to have used all available scientific
research results as basis for the given guidelines.
Moreover a safety range was worked into them. So the limits were fixed at substantially
lower levels to guarantee that no health damage arises. In this way first the limits were
determined for the people who for reasons of profession are exposed to electromagnetic
For the population in general the limits for the so called non-professional exposition were
reduced further to one half till one fifth for reasons of caution and care. In Fig. 1.1 these
limits are registered. Thereby is distinguished between magnetic fields and electric fields
that appear stationary or at extremely low frequencies (ELF describes frequencies between
1 Hz and 100 Hz). Moreover limits for low-frequency (1-10 kHz) and high-frequency (1-
10 MHz) alternating electromagnetic fields are given.
The graph should serve as a rough orientation and show us the proportion of scale. As
further information some thresholds of measured reactions of biological systems are
registered (after Konig*1*). Because a logarithmic scale was chosen to fit all the values on
one graph it becomes clear that between the first reactions and the recommended limits
there lie up to five powers often. The ditch seems to be insurmountable.

1.2 Wireless telephones
Measuring technical surveys with regard to the influence of brain currents by digital radio
signals by the university hospital in Lubeck have startled handy manufacturers and users
equally . Although in this case measurement errors could be detected, the ,,bugaboo on
the wall" remains that we are sitting unsuspecting in a restaurant and a neighbour draws
his handy out of his pocket to make a digital telephone call. Thereby synchronizing the
brain currents within a radius of 100 meters on the broadcasting signal and occupying our
brain useless with technical signals. The derivation will show that from the start this can't
happen to all visitors, because as a prerequisite conditions of resonance must be fulfilled.
But would there be an affected, he or she for sure would have considerable problems,
because informations that are not picked up over the sense organs can neither be classified
timely nor as regards content.
An affected whose brain has picked up technical signals not even is able to register by
itself that it was fed with incorrect informations. It would be reasonable when the visitors
of the restaurant would defend themselves and put the radio operator on the doorstep. The
number of restaurants where apart from cats and dogs also handy's have to stay outside is
increasing. How should we keep out of the way of electromagnetic fields? Should we walk
around permanently with a steel helmet or even better in a knight's armour and even go to
bed with them? It would be worse than in the dark middle ages.
Summarizing: it should be guaranteed that the operation of electro technical apparatus
causes neither health damage nor unintentional influence or irritation. A systematic and
scientific procedure should investigate in the laboratory all relevant physical phenomena
individually for their interaction. Electro physics bases on two phenomena in connexion
with electro-smog: on the one hand the radiation and on the other hand the thermal effect,
but at a close look both factors prove to be of only little importance!
In radiation measurements the intensity of the electromagnetic wave at a certain place is
determined. In laboratory experiments the field strength is increased so long till biological
reactions are observed. Thermal limits are determined in a similar way. As said, the values
lie about powers of ten above those that possibly bother you when you hold a handy to
your ear. It is true that the microwave radiation penetrates into your head but we also
know that it marches out again on the other side and this visit in your head happens with
the speed of light.
Exactly like this are guest in your body constantly your local radio station, your local
television station the satellites with hundreds of programs and anyway the whole radio
technical world even when you did not invite them.
For an electromagnetic wave to become receivable, the field strength must lie clearly
above the common noise signal and this can only be achieved by a permanent overlap, by
standing waves, like in a cavity tuned to a specific frequency or an antenna. As long as
people don't let themselves grow antennas on their heads they hardly have to fear direct
biological effects of electromagnetic waves.
That leaves as the second phenomenon the thermal effect. With a handy held to your
cheek there comes into being a local fever in your head. But that is not at all unusual or
unnatural for the human body. Something like that happens to a far greater degree when
you take a hot foot bath or let yourself be irradiated at one side from the sun at a tourist

1.3 Absorption of waves
The with the theme dealing physicians logically have to put up with criticism that they
work only with two phenomena that not at all can be involved authoritative in the causes
for biological effects. A third factor can be considered, a field phenomenon until now
stayed unnoticed by science: the vortex of the electric field, the so called potential vortex.
A vortex is to be considered as an oscillation around a fixed point. Through that a
permanent overlap is caused, like what happens at an antenna only that the vortex is not
bound to the dimension of an antenna. The potential vortex is contracting and in this way
reaches extremely high energy densities at very little spatial measurement, densities that
lie far above those that field strength measurements are pretending to us [Al].
When again you take the handy at hand with which you ,,blow" the pulsed microwaves
into your head. Don't worry, because with the speed of light and without provable damage
almost everything comes out again on the other side, but only almost everything. A little
damping of the wave has taken place and your head has absorbed this part of the irradiated
wave (Fig. 1.3). Who claims this is already the thermal factor actually should realize that
there exists no corresponding term in the wave equation. Here there are found merely two
dual vortex phenomena as a possible damping term: the eddy current and the potential
vortex. An eddy current damping is ruled out because of the bad conductivity of the head.
But this favours his dual anti-vortex, the potential vortex [A1].
Seen physically the following is taking place in your head: the absorbed waves roll
themselves up to vortices and through that become localized and overlap themselves
permanently (Fig. 1.4b). In the course of time the vortices decay and produce the wellknown
eddy losses that lead to the measurable increase in temperature. When reactions or
biological effects arise, simply and solely the vortex can be considered as the possible
cause. Thereby play two points an important role: the number of the generated vortices
and their lifetime that is determined by the time of decay.
In anticipation of the mathematical calculation of the potential vortices it is pointed out
here that these are favoured not only by a low conductivity, but also by a high
dielectricity. Because water has an unusual high dielectricity ( = 80) and our head
consists predominantly of water doubts in dealing with handy's are reasonable.
Also the relaxation time constant representative for the lifetime can be calculated [A2].
We must proceed from the assumption that both the number of the vortices and their
lifetime, that is all the at a fixed point in time in our head existing and effective vortices,
can be a cause and therefore have to be considered and investigated scientifically.

1.4 Overlap effect
The graph at the left (Fig. 1.4) should clarify once more that only the in space localized
and permanently overlapping field appearances can be considered as a cause for biological
effects. This can concern an over an antenna standing wave (a) or a vortex (b) which is to
be taken as localized by nature.
It would be allowed to in general speak only of a vortex because the standing wave can by
all means be understood as a special case of the vortex. The essential difference is that the
vortex is not bound to the size of a fixed antenna and can contract itself at any time to
achieve in this way a substantial higher energy density. As a result this than will lead to an
increased biological effectiveness.
It should be pointed at a further omission. In the discussion about limits, without
exception, the absolute field strength of the broadcasting signal is valued and not the type
of modulation. The last mentioned should actually not at all play a role according to the
prevailing scientific opinion.
Totally different is the case with a vortex that acts damping. Such a vortex shows near it's
centre a considerable smaller wavelength than more to the outside and through that it has a
big frequency bandwidth [A5]. It is to be expected that in the extremely broadband
pulsed signals of the digital networks the creation of vortices (or eddies) will be favoured
considerably stronger than in amplitude- or frequency-modulated signals (AM/FM/Cnetwork).
In connexion with analog modulated radio- or handy-signals until now there
never has been reported of any synchronization of the brain currents with handy-signals
from a comparison of the EEG with the broadcasting signal.
Interestingly the for EMC-measurements usual stepped broadband antennas have exactly
the construction that certainly would be favourable to the measuring technical registration
of vortex phenomena (Fig. 1.4c).
With the dipole antennas of different lengths for different wavelengths there still are
measured waves and not vortices but these measuring techniques is certainly
accommodating to the until now unnoticed and stayed undiscovered vortex phenomenon.
So there are some good reasons that the vortex is a dominating influential factor for EMCproblems.
By means of the example of the handheld wireless telephones can be studied and
discussed with which set of problems the very young discipline of science of the
environmental compatibility has to fight in the future. And in which ways there can be
found approaches towards a solution of the problem. When the comfortable and trodden
out ways of textbook physics do not lead to the goal than we will have to force our own
way through the jungle of science.
At first we'll have to obtain a short overview of the actual level of research and
knowledge. From the criticism to this we than can derive the tasks of the electromagnetic
environmental compatibility and in particular the unsolved tasks.

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