I t c a n be assumed that until now there does not yet exist a technical application for the
here presented potential vortex theory unless the phenomenon was used by chance and
unconsciously. About this the transmission of optical light signals over fibre optic cable
can be given as a typical example.
Compared to a transmission of energy impulses over a copper cable fibre optic cables
show a considerable better degree of effectiveness. The derived potential vortex theory
provides a conclusive explanation for this phenomenon and therefore is put here to
discussion: If we cut through a fibre optic cable and look at the distribution of a light
impulse over the cross-section, then we observe a concentration in the centre of the
conductor (fig. 4.1).
Herc the duality between the vortices of the magnetic and of the electric field comes to
light. Whereas the current eddies in a copper conductor cause the "skin effect" as is wellknown,
potential vortices show a "concentration effect" and align themselves with the
vortex centre. The measurable and in fig. 4.1 shown distribution of the light intensity in a
fibre optic cable may confirm this phenomenon, the orientation of the potential vortex on
the vortex centre.
For instance the calculation of the resistance of a copper cable provides as an important
result an apparent decrease of the resistance directed towards the conductor surface. There
the associated better conductivity as a consequence causes an increased current density. In
the reversed direction, towards the centre of the conductor, consequently a decrease of the
effective conductivity would be present, and this result is independent of the used
material. According to the rules of duality this is a condition for the formation of potential
vortices. As already said the conductivity is responsible for it, if the expanding eddy
current with its skin effect or the contracting potential vortex with its concentration effect
Usual fibre optic materials possess not only a small conductivity, but in addition a high
dieletricity. This additionally favours the formation of vortices of the electric field. If one
consciously or unconsciously supports the potential vortices, then there is a possibility that
the life of the fibre optic cable is negatively influenced because of the concentration effect.
Of course it can not be excluded that other effects, like e.g. reflections or the modes of the
light are involved in the concentration effect. But it should be guaranteed that this actually
concerns is causal phenomena and doesn't concern only alternative explanations out of
ignorance of the active vortex phenomenon.
The formal mathematical reason for the concentration effect provides the reverse sign in
Faraday's law of induction compared to Ampere's law
4.2 Duality of the vortex properties
The rules of duality dictate for the vortex of the electric and of the magnetic field the
1. Whereas currents and eddy currents demand a good conductivity, potentials and
potential vortices can only form with bad conductivity, thus in a dielectric and best in
2. Eddy currents run apart, strive towards infinity and thus show the well-known "skin
effect" with a spatially limited arrangement of the conductor. According to the rules of
duality the potential vortex will strive towards the vortex centre and in this way will
show a "concentration effect".
3. Another property of vortices is shown in fig. 4.2.
On the left side a plane eddy current is indicated. Since the discovery of Ampere's law
it is well-known to us that such a circular current (I) forms a magnetic dipole standing
perpendicular to the vortex plane.
On the right hand side the dual phenomenon is sketched. Here charges are piled up
circularly to a planar potential vortex (U). Thereby an electric dipole forms, standing
perpendicular to the vortex plane. This relation directly follows from the equations of
the field-theoretical approach.
Whereas circular currents and current eddies produce magnetic dipoles, the postulated
potential vortices will form electric dipoles.
With these three interesting properties some key questions of quantum physics, that until
now have stayed a mystery to science (fig. 4.4), can be answered conclusively and without
I.Why are there no magnetically charged particles?
The better the conductivity of a medium is, the higher as a consequence the number of free
charge carriers is. the more strongly eddy currents are formed. The answer to question I is
inferred from the opposite case:
In the ideal vacuum no charge carriers at all are present, why no currents, no current
eddies and consequently no magnetic poles can exist.
With this well-known fact the first question already is answered. The question why in the
microcosm there can not exist magnetically charged elementary particles, why the search
for magnetic monopoles doesn't make any sense. Let's ask further:
II. Why are there only electrically charged particles?
Let us for that consider the dual conditions. The worse the conductivity of a medium is, the
more the potential vortex -will be favoured that because of this property also can be
understood as the vortex of the dielectric.
In the mentioned extreme case of the ideal vacuum, no electric conductivity is present for
reason of the missing charge carriers. But this circumstance favours the potential vortex
and that, according to fig. 4.2, forms electric poles and with this also the second question
would be answered clearly.
It can be traced back to the boundary conditions of the microcosm that without exception
electricallv charged particles are entitled to exist; a realization derived from the fieldtheoretical
approach, that covers all experiences.
4.3 Derivation of the electron as an elementary vortex
The next key question necessarily has to be brought to a conclusive answer to save the
principle of causality, so that we no longer have to postulate an own physics with its own
laws for the microcosm:
III. Why do these particles show as monopoles?
More concrete the question has to read:
Where is the positive pole in a negatively charged electron, if it should be an electric
The only possible answer is:
In the centre of the particle!
Thus in the centre of the electron its positive pole is hidden and in the centre of the
positron its negative pole is hidden. But we only observe these particles from the outside
and for reason of the field conditions of the electron we measure a negative charge and for
its antiparticle, the positron, a positive charge. If in each case we wanted to measure the
electric fields included in the inside, we had to destroy the particle. Then a proof would
not be possible anymore.
Here also a persistent mistake is eliminated by the for a long time known axiom that
monopoles can not exist at all if one considers continuity! By means of technical-physical
experiments this axiom is sufficiently secured.
The quantum physical approach is standing on uncertain ground if it is postulated that
other laws of nature should apply to particle physics, if a second approach, the fieldtheoretical
approach, is conceivable that does not know these problems!
The discussed concentration effect gives the potential vortex a structure shaping property.
With that also the fourth key question can be answered:
IV. Why do the particles have the form of spheres?
The potential vortex is favoured in the particle-free vacuum of the microcosm because of
the missing conductivity. In connection with the concentration effect the following
conclusion can be drawn:
The extremely mighty potential vortex exerts a high pressure on the microcosm and on
With that also the fourth key question, why stable elementary particles are spherical, can
be answered by the potential vortex theory:
Only the sphere is able to withstand a high outside pressure.
All other forms, like e.g. dipoles formed like a rod or a club would be instable in the
presence of the extremely concentrating potential vortex. They would be immediately
destroyed by the pressure of the potential vortex.
I. Why are there no magnetically charged
(the vacuum has no conductivity!)
II. Why are there only electrically charged
(in the vacuum only potential vortices can exist!)
III. Why do these particles show as monopoles?
(the other pole is locked up in the inside of the vortex
IV. Why do the particles have the form of spheres?
(for reason of the outside pressure by the concentration
V. Why is the elementary quantum stable?
(without conductivity no decay of vortices takes place!)
VI. Why does for every particle of matter exist an antiparticle?
(there are two swirl directions with equal rights!)
VII. Why are particles and antiparticles incompatible?
(contrary swirl directions!)
Fig. 4.4: Key questions of quantum physics
4.4 Quanta as field vortices
The fied-theoretical approach demands removing the electron from the field equations
(eq. 3.7) and at the same time introducing the potential vortex of the electric field. With
this vortex phenomenon there now is a possibility that the electromagnetic wave
spontaneously rolls up to a vortex in case it is disturbed from the outside. The vortex
particle that is formed in such a way owes its physical reality on the one hand the
concentration effect of the potential vortex, that compresses this particle to the dimension
of a tiny sphere and on the other hand its localization for reason of the oscillation around
a fixed point.
The sphcrical elementary particles are being compressed to inconceivably small
dimensions. Therefore they are capable to bind a comparatively high energy in their
inside. This is confirmed by the mass-energy relation E = mc2 . (4.1)
The fact that the energy is dependent on the speed of light can be judged to be a clear
indica tion that quanta actually are nothing but oscillating electromagnetic packages,
vortical oscillations of empty space!
The next question reads:
V. Why is the elementary quantum stable?
The worse the conductivity is, the more the potential vortex will be favoured, the more
strongly the concentration effect will form, the smaller the spherical phenomena will get -
the larger the authoritative relaxation time will be, i.e. the slower the decay of vortices
and with that the more stable the vortex phenomenon will be.
In the microcosm, that comes the ideal case of a particle-free vacuum very close, the
spherical vortices because of the missing conductivity have an absolute stability.
VI. Why does for every particle of matter exist an antiparticle?
Since every vortex can also oscillate
in the opposite direction, there always exist two forms of formation of spherical vortices
with equal rights, one of them is assigned to the world of matter and the other to the world
VII. Why are particles and antiparticles incompatible?
For reason of the contrary swirl direction they are incompatible to each other. They have
the tendency to destroy each other mutually, like two trains that want in the opposite
direction on a single-tracked distance.
The quantum physical approach does not have an answer to these key questions. Until
now scientists have merely thought about to what the observable contraction in the
microcosm and the macrocosm can be traced back. Because the approach was not able to
furnish an answer, without further ado some new matter was introduced: the sluons. These
binding particles should be able to exert the necessary pressure. But until now no one has
been able to observe or detect this fabulous matter. Nobody knows its structure and its
composition. Despite missing evidence it is stated that this matter is mass less and at the
same time lumped; it is invisible because it can't interact with any other matter, not even
with the supposed building parts of the atomic nuclei, the quarks. But at the same time
there should be exerted a pressure on the quarks, for which reason quarks again should be
able to interact with gluons!
4.5 The photon
The ability to form structures as a consequence of the concentration effect gives the
potential vortex a number of highly interesting properties. To derive these properties we
can make work easier when we fall back upon the observations and experiences of flow
Here the vortex ring takes a special place. Its vortex centre is not closed, for which reason
it is not stationary and propagates in space with a constant speed. It can be observed that
the velocity of propagation increases with the ring diameter becoming smaller. By means
of the vortex rings, that skilful smokers can produce with pointed lips, these properties can
be made visible.
Now if two vortex rings run into each other with the same axis and direction of rotation
then both oscillate around each other, by one vortex attracting the other vortex, thereby
accelerating and thus contracting it. The second vortex then slips through the core opening
and gets again slower and larger. Now the first vortex accelerates and plays the same game
It would be obvious for the vortex of the electric field to have a corresponding property.
The electron e- and with the opposite swirl direction the positron e+ will form such a
potential vortex corresponding to the derivation. Two electrons, as like charged particles,
would repel each other and surely will be out of the question for such a configuration. An
electron and a positron however will attract each other and because of their
incompatibility they will mutually destroy unless they open their vortex centres to form a
vortex ring. Now the e- shows its positively charged centre that shows the same swirl
direction as the e+ seen from the outside. Therefore the vortices don't hurt each other,
when the positron slips through the opened vortex centre of the electron and vice versa.
This oscillating electron-positron pair has strange properties: seen from the outside one
moment it is negatively charged and the next moment it is positively charged. Therefore
over time on the average no charge will be measurable and no electromagnetic interaction
will take place.
One moment the particle is matter and the next moment it is anti-matter. Hence no mass at
all can be attributed to the particle. Interactions primarily takes place between both dual
vortices. We can predict, the particle has neither mass nor charge. The environment
merely sees a fast oscillating particle that only within every half cycle is capable of an
The centre of the oscillating particle is open, for which reason it is not stationary
anymore. Instead it propagates in z-direction with the swirl velocity, which is the speed of
light, in this way preventing a rotation around the x- or y- axis (fig. 4.6). In this way a
polarizability is present.
The only possible and, as we will see, necessarily taking place rotation around the z-axis
gives the particle a spin of the magnitude of a quantum of angular momentum. After all
the rotation for e- and e+ is of the same magnitude with a spin of each time There
should be paid attention to the fact that for the case of an opposite sense of direction of the
respective rotation around the common z-axis the spin on the average will be zero.
In addition the particle is characterized by an outstanding property: a periodically taking
place oscillation with any frequency, but that frequency has to be constant.
We now only have to take a table of particles to hand. Actually we will find a corresponding
particle that has all these properties: the also called photon.
4.6 Pair creation
Proof for the correctness of the model concept provides the decay of the photon in an
electron and a positron in the presence of a strong field, as for instance in an atomic
nucleus. This observable decay is called pair creation or Bethe-Heitler process:
In this process the elementary vortices for a short time get back their localization and are
therefore detectable. Otherwise the electron and positron have the form of a sphere, the
photon however rather has the form of two oscillating discs.
The photon doesn't participate in the electromagnetic interaction, because the electric field
lines run from one disc to the other (from + to -). The field lines are not open as they are
for e- or e+ (fig. 4.3). To open up the field lines an energy is necessary that corresponds to
the sum of the two formed particles. But from this it by no means follows that this amount
of energy will be released in the reversed and much better known process, where matter
and anti-matter annihilate under emission of At the end of the derivation the
vortex model will provide us the desired answers on questions of the energy of photons.
Here first of all only the properties will be concerned.
Experiments, in which light shows as a particle, are the photoelectric effect, the Compton
effect and a lot more. According to the by Maxwell developed classical theory of light
however is light an electromagnetic wave that is not quantized in any way, neither as
sphere nor as disc, the wave nature of light as well has a physical reality and is secured by
experiment. This is witnessed by the interference patterns of overlapping coherent light
A concept in which light could exist at the same place and the same time both as wave and
as corpuscle could never be brought into accord with the principle of causality. Formulas
of compromise, like the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg that refers to the point of
view of the observer, can't change anything about this dilemma. The dual nature of light,
that in this context is gladly spoken of, rather consists of the fact that dependent on the
local field conditions, any time and spontaneously the wave can roll up to a vortex.
As an example of a violation of the principle of causality it has been indicated under point
3 (fig. 3.1) that both fields and quanta at the same time should be the cause of something.
This concept was formulated by Maxwell and written down in modern quantum electrodynamics
by Dirac but in the field-theoretical approach we have dropped this concept
because it violates all rules of causality in an elementary manner. Therefore it only is
consistent, if we hold the view that the light is either wave or particle but never is both at
the same time!
In the spontaneous transition of the wave to the particle all the important properties are
conserved: the propagation with the speed of light, the characteristic frequency of the
oscillation and the mentioned polarizability.
The process of rolling up possibly takes place already in the laboratory, in a bubble
chamber and at the latest in our eyes. To receive the electromagnetic wave, we had to have
antennas. We actually see the photons. It therefore would be obvious if our cells to see
only could perceive vortices, in this case photons. We don't possess a sense organ for
fields and waves.
If, according to the field-theoretical approach, there exist electric field vortices then they
will not only form the elementary particles in the vacuum, but will also macroscopically
form and have an effect in larger dimensions.
Assuming a wave that rolls up to a plane vortex it would be obvious if polarization and
velocity of propagation are conserved in the process. But how does it stand about the
The wave now will walk round a stationary point, the vortex centre. The propagation with
the speed of light c will remain existent as the swirl velocity. For a plane circular vortex,
where the path for a revolution on the outside is very much longer than near the vortex
centre, there arises a longer wave length and as a consequence a lower frequency on the
outside as more to the inside. With this property the vortex proves to be a changer of
frequency: the vortex transforms the frequency of the causing wave in an evenly
spectrum, that starts at low frequencies and stretches to very high frequencies (fig. 1.4).
Exactly this property we observe in "white noise". The consistent conclusion would be
that this concerns the vortex of the electric field. Anyone can, without big expenses,
convince himself or herself of the localization, of the property to change the frequency and
of the circumstance that vortices can be very easily influenced, that they avoid or again
whirl about a place of disturbance, for instance an antenna. For that one only needs to tune
a radio receiver to a weak and noisy station and move oneself or some objects around,
then one is able to directly study the influences from the manipulation of the receiving
But already the fact that the using and measurability of signals is limited by noise makes
clear. which attention the potential vortex should be given.
Within a limited frequency range the power of the Nyquist or resistance noise is
independent of frequency (fig. 4.7). This should be clarified particularly by the term
"white noise" analogous to white light, where all visible spectral ranges independent of
frequency have the same energy density.
But this relation doesn't hold for high frequencies of any magnitude. Here another noiseeffect
appears, that is said to have its cause in the quantum structure of energy.
Untouched by possible interpretations an increasing power of the noise is measured, that
more and more turns into a being proportional to frequency (fig. 4.7, curve a).
Interestingly this curve shows a remarkable duality to the power curve of eddy currents,
likewise shown against the frequency, that for instance can be measured at eddy current
vortex of the electric field in bad conducting media on the one hand and the eddy current
in inductive materials on the other hand.
4.8 Capacitor losses
Next the dielectric losses in a capacitor fed with an alternating voltage are measured and
likewise put on against the frequency. At first the course is independent of the frequency,
but towards higher frequencies it increases and shows the same characteristic course of the
curve as the before mentioned power of the noise (fig. 4.7, curve a).
This excellent agreement suggests the assumption that the dielectric losses are nothing but
These vortex phenomena, caused by time-varying fields, are not only found in ferromagnetic
and conductive materials, but equally as dual phenomena in dielectrics and nonconductors.
As examples of practical applications the induction welding or the microwave oven can be
mentioned. The process can be described in other words as follows: in both examples the
cause is posed by high-frequency alternating fields that are irradiated into a dielectric as
an electromagnetic wave, there roll up to potential vortices and eventually decay in the
vortex centre. The desired and used thermal effect arises during this diffusion process.
The striving in the direction of the vortex centre gives the potential vortex of the electric
field a structure shaping property. As a consequence of this "concentration effect"
circular vortex structures are to be expected, comparable to the visible vortices in flow
dynamics (e.g. tornados and whirlwinds). At the same time the dual anti-vortex arises, the
diverging eddy current. It takes, as is well-known, the given structure of the conductor, so
in the technical literature one correspondingly talks of a "skin effect".
Now if conductor and non-conductor meet as they do in a capacitor, then at the boundary
area visible structures will form. Circles would be expected, if the eddy current in the
inside and striving to the outside is equally powerful as the potential vortex that comes
from the outside and concentrates.
Ac tua l ly such circular structures are observed on the aluminium of high tension
capacitors, when they were in operation for a longer period of time. The formation of
these circles, the cause of which until now is considered to be unsolved, is already
experimentally investigated and discussed on an international level by scientists (fig.
These circular vortex structures can be seen as a visible proof
potential vortices of the electric field.
4.9 Vortex lines and vortex streets
It can be assumed that the vortex of the electric field is relevant with regard to the
electromagnetic environmental compatibility. This then holds not only for microcosmic
and microscopic vortices, but also for macroscopic and larger dimensions. The individual
vortices can join together to balls and lines. For the study of this process it is useful to
again fall back upon experiences of flow dynamics.
The co-operation of individual point vortices has been investigated thoroughly in flow
dyamics. Without any outside manipulation an individual vortex rotates on the spot.
That changes in the case of two neighbouring vortices. Now it depends on their mutual
strength and sense of rotation. If they have the opposite sense of rotation and equal
strength then their centres of rotation move straight forward in the same direction. If
however the direction of rotation is the same then both vortices rotate around each other
In this way a multitude of point vortices is capable, to form in the first case whole vortex
streets and in the second case spherical vortex balls. In principle a vortex string can also
consist of a multitude of potential vortices pointing in the same direction; but it has the
tendency to roll up to a vortex ball in case it is disturbed from the outside, as can be shown
very clear by means of computer simulations.
As a starting-point for a discussion the thesis can be put forward that also electric field
vortices, in nature usually consisting of a multitude of individual point vortices, appear as
vortex strings and vortex balls.
Perhaps historians see in this property an answer to the question, how it was possible for
the Romans to build streets straight as a die in the wilderness. Their land surveyors, the
Augures, had at their disposal neither laser, nor any other suitable gauges. Their most
important tool was the Lituus, the crook, that at its upper end was rolled up like a vortex in
the sense of a flat coil shaped like a spiral.
The question poses what this strange object was used for. Perhaps the roman land
surveors tracked down any vortex lines with this crook and then used them to orientate
History still holds a lot of secrets, but for now only this indication is given. The following
seminar will give enough opportunities for speculations and discussions
4.10 Water colloids as vortex balls
We have to realize that in the biosphere we are staying in a relatively ideal dielectric. The
two "capacitor plates" are being formed by the ionosphere and the earth. The potential
vortex will, as said, be favoured by a bad conductivity and by a high dielectricity. Consequently
it will dominate and take effect in the biosphere. In which way it takes effect is the
central theme of the electromagnetic environmental compatibility.
Life in this world consists predominantly of water and water has a very high dielectricity!
With that the effectiveness and the long life of the potential vortex increases. The human
head for instance contains 7O% and plants contain over 90% water! But it does not
simply concern H2O, but structured water in a colloidal form. These water colloids could
be vortex balls because they consist of a large number of water molecules in a spherical
arrangement They form independent and insoluble particles with a negative electric
charge (fig. 4.11).
Water is not equal water thanks to this structure. One can buy healing water and
corresponding sources are well-known and famous. Many an effect can be explained by
means of a chemical analysis but not everything.
The highest age in this world is reached by the inhabitants of Hunza, in the mountains of
norhern India at the foothill of the Hindu Kush, at an altitude of 2500 meters. They drink
some muddy glacial water that is strongly colloidal. Hence it would be obvious that plants
and also we ourselves need such water for our physique. Processes are known with which
the advantageous vortex balls, say colloids, are produced artificially by mechanic or
chemical treatment. Levitated water, as it is called and as it is for sale nowadays, is said
to be more healthy. Unfortunately people predominantly work empiric in this area,
because science occupies itself with this topic only little or not at all.
Another problem is the fact that the colloids again fall apart quickly. The like negative
charge favours this process. The liquid crystals have to be stabilized from the outside. In
the case of the Hunza-water the colloids are surrounded by a vegetable layer of fatty acid
and are protected in this way
also in biological systems are stabilized in that way.
Everyone of us knows that fresh spring water tastes much better than stale, bottled water,
even if the chemical analysis turns out of be absolutely identical. For this fact classical
science is not able to give a cause - a further problem of causality. In any case should
potential vortices with their structure shaping property be considered as a cause for the
formation of water colloids. It surely causes no difficulties at all to interpret the colloids as
4.11 Phenomenon of transport
The vortex principle is self-similar. This means that the properties of an individual vortex
also for the collection of numerous vortices again appear and can he observed in a similar
manner. That's why a vortex ball behaves entirely similar as an individual isolated vortex.
The same concentration effect, that keeps the vortex together, shows its effect for the
vortex ball and keeps it together also.
Something corresponding holds for a basic property of potential vortices, being of a
completely different nature. It is the property to bind matter in the vortex and carry it
away with the vortex. Well-known are the vortex rings that skilful cigarette smokers can
blow in the air. Of course also non-smokers can produce these air eddies with their mouth
but these remain invisible. Solely by the property of the vortex ring to bind the smoke it
becomes visible to the human eye.
If out potential vortex transports something then it rather should be a dielectric material,
so preferably water. Therefore if in the environmental air we are surrounded by potential
vortices that we can detect for instance as noise, then they are capable with their
"phenomenon of transport", to pick up water and to keep it in the vortex. In this way the
atmospheric humidity is explicable as the ability of the air particles to bind comparatively
heavy water molecules. If the vortex falls apart then it inevitably releases the water
particles and it rains. This is merely a charming alternative for the classical representation
without claim to completeness.
Already the Romans have made use of this phenomenon to find water and sources. About
this Vitruv (from 23 BC) in his 8th book about architecture writes: "Before sunrise one
has to lie down on the earth at the places, where to search for water,... and one has to look
at the area... Then one has to dig at the place where there appears curling and in the air
rising moist steam. Because this characteristic can not occur at a place where there is no
water". The at a certain time of day and in certain seasons occasional in meadows and corn
fields observable streaks or circular mostly moist places with differing vegetation, have to
be judged as an infallible sign for the existence of this phenomenon.
This phenomenon of transport again appears for the discussed water colloids. The
involved water molecules form a spherical object with a negative charge. They turn their
negatively charged side to the outside and point with the positively charged end in the
direction of the middle of the sphere. There, no longer discernible from the outside, a
negatively charged ion can be, that is stuck, that no longer can escape and that gives the
whole colloid a characteristic property. In this way nature knows various water colloids
that constitute plants and animals. But starting at a temperature of 41°C the liquid crystals
fall apart. This not by chance is the temperature at which a person dies.
Already 10 millivolts per liquid crystal suffice for the electrically induced death.
The to a colloid identical structure we find in the structure of the atoms. Here the atomic
nucleus is held in the inside of a vortex-like cloud of electrons, the atomic hull. We'll hit
the phenomenon of transport a last time, when we derive the elementary particles. For the
photon is already discernible the tendency of an elementary vortex, to take another vortex
in its inside. Merely because the electron and positron are evenly matched a stable
configuration is prevented for the photon.