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Wednesday, 5 September 2007

9Usage ,first telsa physics infomation for engineers

9. Usage
I f t h e newly discovered vortex phenomenon of the vortex of the electric field exists, then
it will be possible to practically use it. Whereas we still think about possibilities for
technical usage, there by all means exists the possibility, that nature already is successfully
using the vortex for a long time. We should look precise at things. We can only learn of
Remarkable about the passage of Plato (fig. 9.0) is not only the fact, that the potential vortex
already was known for two and a half thousand years and was taken into consideration
for an interpretation, but also the realization of Plato, that during the described transition
the smells form. Smell thus would be a vortex property!
After all vortices are able to bind information as can be inferred from the basic principle of
cybernetics. With this vortex property and the statement of Plato smell obviously would be
nothing else than pure information which by potential vortices is stored, distributed and
eventually is caught by the hair cells for smell of the nose.
If now a dog takes up a track, does it then run after vortices which remained behind or
does it analyse, according to the encyclopaedia, the chemistry left behind, or does it
combine both? Does the bloodhound for instance interpret the vortical oscillations of
chemical substances like lattice oscillations or the movements of the electrons in the
atomic hull? A lot of work awaits the research scientist of vortices here. The seminar will
offer opportunity, to deepen this topic.
Only if technicians exist, who put an electronic box on the table with a button, at which
they adjust the wanted scent of rotten eggs to lavender, we honestly can claim to have
understood the phenomenon of the smell.
For the majority of the people a theory only wins its sense by the practical applicability,
and therefore we'll have to develop and present a technical usage on the basis of the
vortex theory.

9.1 Longitudinal electric waves
It is important, that experts struggle for problem solutions. Only if the discussion about
limits doesn't come to a result which can be grasped and verified, then also in the
environmental compatibility the willingness will grow, to accept a not yet known
phenomenon as a further and possibly crucial influential factor.
Already for a hundred years there has been a dispute of experts. At that time scientists all
over the world were trying to verify the experiments of Heinrich Hertz. Then from
America the message came, Hertz had been mistaken and the electromagnetic wave would
have completely other properties. The scientists in Europe were indignant, but they had to
take the message seriously, because it after all came from the important experimental
physicist Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), who with his inventions of the rotary field and of the
asynchronous motor has stamped today's electric energy technology as no other.
As a result Lord Kelvin boarded a steamship as a mediator and sailed 1897 to New York
to convince Tesla from the opposite. But the experiments, which Tesla presented his
Lordship, didn't give rise to any doubts, and thus Kelvin returned to Europe with the
message: "Both are right, Tesla as well as Hertz! Whereas the electromagnetic wave which
Hertz has detected, is a transverse wave, does Tesla work with a longitudinal wave"!
Lord Kelvin as a result started to draw most different vortex models, because it was clear
to him, that a propagation as a longitudinal standing wave analogous to the sound wave
only is conceivable, if quantized structures exist, which knock each other mutually. Kelvin
therefore assumed vortex structures of the electromagnetic field. His vortex models were
published and landed in the curiosity box of orthodox science.
Heinrich Hertz did have a big advantage. He could refer to Maxwell and calculate his
wave with the field equations. For modern technology the mathematical calculability is
almost an indispensable prerequisite!
For Tesla wave there however neither was a mathematical nor a physical theory. The only
thing Tesla had, were presentable experiments.
In Colorado Springs he had build a 10 kW transmitting installation and lighted 200 fluorescent
lamps of 50 Watt each on a mountain in the Rocky Mountains in a distance of 25
miles. With that he had completely transmitted the transmission power of 10 kW, as can
be inferred from the press reports at that time. With Hertzian waves, which propagate
spatially, this experiment even today, after over 100 years, wouldn't be realizable technologically.
According to the law of the square of the distance one isn't even able to let glow
a tiny little lamp in such a distance.
For sure his rotary field theory was a big help for Tesla in all experiments. Actually a
rotary field can be seen as the special case of a planar vortex.
Thus Tesla obviously was able, to use the potential vortex without even knowing it. Tesla
has stimulated a loosely coupled high tension coil wound like a spiral to self-resonant
oscillations and emitted the produced vortices over an antenna (fig. 9.1). On the receiver
side the process was then reversed.

9.2 Medical technical usage
Nikola Tesla at his time was extremely popular in the area of medicine. With his inventions
injuries were cured and pain eased. Modern diathermy goes back to his work. But
Tesla at that time has treated the patients with vortices, whereas today, possibly out of
ignorance, electromagnetic waves are used. These however have in contrast to potential
vortices only a small penetration depth. Today in addition only the effect of heat is considered
and in no way the information technical effect of electric vortices. Here we are
missing the comparison, to be able to say. if the treatment with a Tesla apparatus was
more successful than with modem microwave radiators.
The experiments of Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957) aimed in the same direction. Exactly as
Tesla 55 years before also Reich emigrated to America in 1939. He had specialized in
catching and collecting vortices, which he called "orgone", from the air. In this way he
could store up high energies over time and then use them purposeful. With his "orgone
accumulator" he was able to cure wounds faster and to ease pain. He also treated cancer
and a lot of forms of anaemia. Technically Reich could demonstrate, that charged
capacitor plates discharge faster under the influence of his apparatus. His orgone
accumulator for instance is a wooden box, filled with wool of steel and wood, which
alternate in layers. He said that the reason for this construction is, that metals repel the
orgone energy, whereas organic materials become charged and accumulate it. That holds
in his opinion to a particularly high degree for water.
Reich concludes that no material and no device are known, with which the orgone energy
could be shielded. This with regard to the environmental compatibility of the vortex
phenomenon should make us thoughtful.
As a supplement it should be mentioned, that Reich already at the end of the forties has
pointed to the dying of the forests and he has made a direct connection to the orgone
energy. Reich was slandered and mocked and died in the prison of Connecticut, while his
writings were burned publicly.
Not much better fared the Austrian forester Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958), who also
can be described as visionary. He was able to produce water with a particularly good
conductivity. His water in addition goes for medicinal and healthy. Also to him travelled
cancer patients of far away to get this water.
Schauberger spoke of the natural treatment of the water, whatever he meant with that. In
any case he build with great success installations to transport wood by floating it and even
installations to mine ore with so-called double twist pipes, which made possible a
transport without friction even of materials, which are heavier than the "means of
transport" water. It could be proven that no contact with the pipe took place. This was
scientifically investigated and confirmed at the university of Stuttgart 1952 by Prof. Popel.
Quite obviously in the double twist pipe vortices have formed, which have bound the
material to be transported (see phenomenon of transport).
Today you can buy levitated water at over 100 selling points in Europe, of which is
claimed, that it is prepared according to instructions of Schauberger. Unfortunately we
aren't able to ask him anymore, if he agrees with such a "centrifuged" water. Thus the test
of the effectiveness has to be left to everyone himself or herself.

9.3 Flying objects
The medium of Viktor Schauberger always was the water. He could produce light effects
and very high temperatures with it with only minimal excitation in the form of impulses.
An installation, which had been built according to his plans at the company of Siemens,
eventually melted at 4000°C by improper operation, as he himself stated. According to
that the machine would have released more energy than used, thus a perpetuum mobile.
The authorities of the state in the Third Reich were impressed and put Schauberger in a
concentration camp, where he was instructed to build a "flying saucer" under permanent
supervision together with fellow prisoners. For him it's all about the concentration effect
and the usage of the as a result occurring implosion in contrast to our today's " technology
of explosion and fire" as Schauberger was accustomed to express himself.
It is not known, if Schaubergers "repulsine" ever has took off.
A disc, which has proven its suitability to fly, was constructed and built by the english
technician John R. R. Searl, although he said he can't explain the effect. He also had big
difficulties, to get the apparatus under control. A disc broke through the ceiling and the
roof of his laboratory and disappeared to never be seen again. Five other flying discs,
which he after this experience started in the open, went lost in the same manner.
Without knowing the effect, he of course neither could assess the dangers. His
experiments have claimed serious injuries and a casualty. While he 1985 was put in prison
under a pretext, his laboratory and his house were burned down and all documents
destroyed. Now he works on a technical usage. According to the principle it concerns a
Faraday machine. Thereby a permanent magnet, magnetized in axial direction, is turned.
Now the magnetic induction B for a relative velocity v is measured as an electric field
strength E according to equation 6.10: E = v x B . (6.10)
Because the vectors are arranged as standing perpendicular to each other, will arise a
tension voltage in radial direction (direction of E-field) which can be taken off. Apart from
the friction no further force of reaction occurs in the case of the Faraday generator.
Because of the small gain of energy until today no application ready for the market exists.
But this principle, to convert magnetic field energy into electric, already has moved the
nature of many inventors. Professor Searl has reversed this old principle. Whereas
normally the component of the velocity towards the centre of rotation decreases, it
increases in Searls case. For that he works with roller pivoted concentric rings, which he
drives by a small electric motor (fig. 9.3). Doing so something inexplicable for him
happens: After switching off the motor the revolutions per minute don't decrease again,
but increase audibly and increase further, until the produced electric field shows the wellknown
high tension phenomena: corona discharges, formation of ozone, ionisation of the
air and production of a vacuum in the inside of the disc.
The rings and rollers consist of several layers, which are built up similar to a bi-metal. The
only explanation I can think of is that a change in structure would occur as a result of the
physical length contraction which is caused by the increase of the E-field in the direction
of the centre of rotation. The bi-metals try to withdraw themselves from this change by an
increase of their rotation of their own (fig. 6.5). To compensate the field the disc builds up
a spin, as also the elementary particles do (fig. 6.13). While the formation of vacuum prevents
sparking in the inside of the flying disc, and the revolutions per minute further increase
because there is no air friction whatsoever, the disc weighing 5 tons all of a sudden
lakes off the ground and according to reports of eyewitnesses shoots vertically upwards.

9.4 Electro gravitation?
Wild speculations circulate about the mechanism of the flight of a "flying saucer", which
should function without sound and without combustion, and for which no sound barrier
exists, as pilots have observed. The talk is about cancelling gravitation or about an
"electro gravitation".
Reproducible in any case is an experiment, which has been systematically investigated by
the american professor Biefeld and his pupil T. Brown from 1925. Accordingly does a
body charged to high tension show a force effect in the direction of its positively charged
note. As a check for oneself a capacitor can be suspended on its connection wires and it
can be observed, how it moves visibly in the direction of the positive pole in case it is
charged (fig. 9.4).
Because the Biefeld-Brown effect depends on direction, it actually can't concern gravitation
at all but merely a not understood electromagnetic interaction. In the neighbourhood
of the capacitor pole air molecules are found, and their negatively charged atomic hull is
attracted by the positive pole. At the same time the atomic nucleus is repelled. By that the
air atoms in the presence of the high tension capacitor become unsymmetrical, causing the
force of attraction due to the smaller distance to exceed the force of repulsion. At the
negatively charged end the conditions are exactly reversed. There a repulsion occurs.
Because the polarized air atoms and molecules are sucked in, no pressure can build up and
as a result no sound barrier can occur. Experiments with charged and uncharged rockets
have brought the interesting result, that the electrically charged rockets flew many times as
far as the uncharged ones (5-6 times as high).
Many a person now perhaps starts to dream of the flying carpet but, as said, it isn't an
"effect of antigravitation". Does "free energy" actually exist, we have to ask ourselves?
From the gravitation the soviet physicist Landau calculates an energy density of 16
megawatt hours per cubic meter for the earth's surface. Immediately inventors are found,
who want to use this gravitational energy.
Nikola Tesla in his laboratory in Manhattan has incidentally built resonators, of which he
could bring all electric, magnetic and mechanic factors in resonance. On an evening stroll
he fastened a battery operated vibrator to the tubular steel scaffolding of a new building
and let everything shake and wobble. In his laboratory such a device once got out of
control by inattentiveness and triggered an earthquake. In that way the road surfacing and
pipes were burst and window panes got broken. The police penetrating his laboratory only
could see, how Tesla forcible finished the experiment with a sledge-hammer.
The experiments which got out of control of Tesla, Searl and Schauberger have one thing
in common: it concerns constructions with an unipolar arrangement of the field.
Tesla had arranged the magnetic field in a unipolar way, as he has reported himself, Searl
had realized electric unipolar fields in a construction similar to the electron, and Viktor
Schauberger had specialized in producing unipolar structures with water vortices.
In the case of the corresponding technical usage, which can be interpreted as making use
of the occurring "spin coupling", therefore in principle utmost caution is imperative.

9.5 Free energy?
Furthermore is reported of Tesla, he would have developed a "converter for space
energy" and 1931 have built it in a luxury car (Pierce Arrow). The car was a 145 km/h
fast, doing so the asynchronous motor (presumably built by Westinghouse) furnished 80
HP at 1800 Rpm. The "free energy" the converter, build by Tesla himself, got from a 1.8
m long antenna. Because the motor ran without adaptation of frequency in slipping
operation, it had to be cooled correspondingly. It was on the way in trial run for over a
week. Now we of course want to know, of what this "free energy" consists, which Tesla
will have used and of which he already 1891 had spoken in the American Institute of
Electrical Engineers.
For the electron as a spherical vortex we have calculated an electric tension voltage of 511
kV between its surface and its centre respectively infinity (equation 6.31*, fig. 7.1). The
highest level of tension voltage normally used for the high tension transmission lies at 380
kV (effective value); for a direct current transmission it is 500 kV. Although still higher
tension voltages would be desirable, they are avoided. This is no accident. Experiments
with higher tension voltages namely have resulted in inexplicable high losses.
We have an explanation: the electrons are taken apart on the way! Their inner energy
amounts with the outer energy to zero. The charge carrier, which in the power station as
result of an energy conversion has been sent on a journey, is in danger to vanish into thin
air (e.g. corona) for tension voltages above 511 kV. The transmitter of Nikola Tesla however
(fig. 9.1 and 9.5) worked with 600 kV and more. He said, with his experiments he
had destroyed billions of particles without being able to observe an emission of energy
and made fun of the misinterpretation of Einstein of the already at that time well-known
mass-energy relation E = mc2.
For the purpose of a one wire or a wireless energy transmission the tension voltage therefore
has to be higher than 511 kV. With Teslas equipment however the electrons shouldn't
be destroyed, but merely be pulled apart to plane circular vortices with help of the today
is Tesla coil known winding. These then could be sent on a journey over the antenna, to
aga i n be caught and formed back in spherical electrons by the receiver antenna. As long as
the electrons don't fall apart, they keep their structure and quantum property. Quanta pass
on an excitation, for instance a bump, in form of a longitudinal standing wave, by one
particle bumping the neighbouring particle, analogous to sound waves, where one gas
molecule passes the bump on to the neighbour. The transmission hence takes place as
longitudinal scalar wave.
Electrons pulled apart to planar vortices in addition haven't got a closed vortex centre
anymore on their journey. For the by Tesla in his laboratory used and publicly presented
one wire energy transmission (1897, Patent Nr. 593,138) the transmission hence doesn't
take place in the wire, but as vortices around the -wire. That explains, why only a
relatively thin conductor, which normally should have melted, was necessary for a
demonstrated power transmission of 10 kW. Tesla however could show, that the wire
stayed cold and virtually no heating losses were measurable (fig. 9.5).
He himself said, that this one wire transmission technology is much better than the alternating
current technology full of losses, which stems from him as well. Tesla must have
known the limit of 511 kV very exactly, because on several photographs one can see, that
he changed the coiling technique off this value!

9.6 Nerve conduction and action potential
Technical solutions often are only a suboptimum and many times they are anything but an
optimum. In many cases the feasibility stands in the foreground. In the question of the
current distribution at that time the decision was made for the worse system, the full of
losses three phase system, because no current meters were available for the free of losses
one wire technology. Without being able to collect money from the consumer, it wouldn't
have been possible for the energy distribution installations to pay for themselves.
Compared to that is nature with its selection principle merciless and without compromises.
Only the most efficient system has a chance to survive and to spread. If it's about transmittining
information in an electric way and two different principles present themselves,
then in nature only the better one will be brought into action.
Let's take a look at the nerve conduction in the human body. In the synapses ion concentrations
and electric potentials of 70 to 90 mV arise. Here with conventional gauges the
activity of a nerve can be detected. From a measurement of the transmission time of
synapse to synapse the velocity of the signal is determined. If we however want to
measure between the switch points on the line, then we have to find out, that for instance
with an ammeter actually nothing is measurable. In addition the nerve fibre has a
miserable conductivity.
The biologist calls the electric signal just "action potential" and draws a vortex-like ring
around the nerve fibre and speaks of a mixed digital and analogue information
The doctor on the other hand knows two different types, fast and slow nerves. In the inside
both are built up virtually identical. A characteristic difference consists of the fact, that the
fast nerves are jacketed with a thick fat layer.
The technician would say, they are better isolated, but why they therefore should be faster,
he hardly would be able to answer. If we however assume, that the action potentials or OUT
potential vortices oscillate around the conductor, thus exactly in the isolation layer and are
forwarded there, then possibly an explanation would have been found.
The nerve conduction moreover has much in common with the one wire system of Tesla:
1. Charges and electric potentials are transmitted
2. Doing so a transport of charge carriers, thus an electric current on the
line, isn 't detectable.
3. Consequently no losses worth mentioning occur.
4. Decisive for the functioning is the dielectric insulator material which surrounds
the conductor and not the electric resistance of the conductor.
5. In contrast to electric circuits a draining conductor is unnecessary.
It looks as if the one wire system is not new at all, as would nature use it already for ages
in the highest perfection. We realize immediately, why our head does without a ventilator
and how the high of signal processing density can be explained. Compared with our brain
modern personal computer (PC) with their backward cable technology are far less than a
With regard to the pressure on the environment by interference radiation we had derived,
that currents and eddy currents with the skin effect direct their radiation to the outside,
whereas potential vortices with their concentration effect direct it to the inside. Probably
for this reason the radiation field of a person is environmentally better compatible than
that of a PC

9.6 Nerve conduction and action potential
Technical solutions often are only a suboptimum and many times they are anything but an
optimum. In many cases the feasibility stands in the foreground. In the question of the
current distribution at that time the decision was made for the worse system, the full of
losses three phase system, because no current meters were available for the free of losses
one wire technology. Without being able to collect money from the consumer, it wouldn't
have been possible for the energy distribution installations to pay for themselves.
Compared to that is nature with its selection principle merciless and without compromises.
Only the most efficient system has a chance to survive and to spread. If it's about transmittining
information in an electric way and two different principles present themselves,
then in nature only the better one will be brought into action.
Let's take a look at the nerve conduction in the human body. In the synapses ion concentrations
and electric potentials of 70 to 90 mV arise. Here with conventional gauges the
activity of a nerve can be detected. From a measurement of the transmission time of
synapse to synapse the velocity of the signal is determined. If we however want to
measure between the switch points on the line, then we have to find out, that for instance
with an ammeter actually nothing is measurable. In addition the nerve fibre has a
miserable conductivity.
The biologist calls the electric signal just "action potential" and draws a vortex-like ring
around the nerve fibre and speaks of a mixed digital and analogue information
The doctor on the other hand knows two different types, fast and slow nerves. In the inside
both are built up virtually identical. A characteristic difference consists of the fact, that the
fast nerves are jacketed with a thick fat layer.
The technician would say, they are better isolated, but why they therefore should be faster,
he hardly would be able to answer. If we however assume, that the action potentials or OUT
potential vortices oscillate around the conductor, thus exactly in the isolation layer and are
forwarded there, then possibly an explanation would have been found.
The nerve conduction moreover has much in common with the one wire system of Tesla:
1. Charges and electric potentials are transmitted
2. Doing so a transport of charge carriers, thus an electric current on the
line, isn 't detectable.
3. Consequently no losses worth mentioning occur.
4. Decisive for the functioning is the dielectric insulator material which surrounds
the conductor and not the electric resistance of the conductor.
5. In contrast to electric circuits a draining conductor is unnecessary.
It looks as if the one wire system is not new at all, as would nature use it already for ages
in the highest perfection. We realize immediately, why our head does without a ventilator
and how the high of signal processing density can be explained. Compared with our brain
modern personal computer (PC) with their backward cable technology are far less than a
With regard to the pressure on the environment by interference radiation we had derived,
that currents and eddy currents with the skin effect direct their radiation to the outside,
whereas potential vortices with their concentration effect direct it to the inside. Probably
for this reason the radiation field of a person is environmentally better compatible than
that of a PC

9.7 Wireless energy transmission technology
Tesla still went a step further. He has cut the wire connection between transmitter and
receiver (fig. 9.5) and instead has installed each time a spherical electrode (fig. 9.7). With
this facility he now was able, to transmit energy completely wireless (1900, Patent No.
645,576). Building on this principle Tesla already 1890 had built a radio remote control
for a battery operated submarine and had presented his patented system the navy. But they
weren't able, to recognize the strategic importance of the radio technology and rejected
with the words: "It's too advanced!" (fig. 9.8).
Tesla further had proven with this technology the mentioned proof concerning the
existence of longitudinal electromagnetic waves. There exist descriptions, partly of Tesla
himself, how he, inside or also outside his laboratory, goes in search of oscillation nodes
of the standing wave with a measuring receiver.
He names several conditions for the wireless energy transmission:
1. "perfect resonance" (same frequency) of transmitter and receiver
2. Installation of the receiver on an "oscillation node" (maximum).
Important is also the measurement of the velocity of propagation, and that isn't constant
from the start for a wave, which oscillates in the direction of propagation. From the
research of earthquakes we know, that the longitudinal waves are faster than the as well
occurring transverse waves. Usually the distance to the epicentre is determined from the
difference in transmission time.
In the patent specification the measurement is described. Tesla has sent longitudinal
radio signals from his transmitter in Colorado Springs once around the earth along the
earth's surface and determined a transmission time of 0,08484 seconds. This corresponds
to a frequency of approx. 6 Hz. He saw his result confirmed, as he could find the oscillation
node of the standing wave again (according to in his laboratory (on the ground
For the full wave length the Schumann resonance, which describes a standing wave of
an around the earth running Hertzian wave, lies as is well-known at 7.8 Hz! Tesla
calculates for his wave a speed 1.6 times the speed of light assuming the polar radius of
the earth to be 6363 km.
Also this measurement result confirms, that Tesla didn't use the Hertzian wave. Tesla
found the off-beat concept of Einstein, the speed of light would be the fastest possible
velocity of signal transmission, only funny. If however today is claimed, 1993 in
tunnelling experiments for the first time a speed faster than light has been measured, then
this just isn't true. Possibly also the Tesla wave tunnelled, as the vortices for a small
conductivity of the air contract and as a result of the length contraction become
correspondingly fast.
Later Tesla after several goes in vain even succeeded in building a high tension tube as a
tunnel, with which the velocity of the signal could be increased arbitrarily. Tesla with that
pursued the goal to be able to make radio contact with other worlds.

9.8 Measuring and switching technique of Nikola Tesla
As an important and accepted experimental physicist with 14 doctor titles and carrier of
the Edison medal Tesla always has held on to his measurement results. Not a theoretical
interpretation but exclusively correct carried out measurements have shown him the
physical reality. But the by Tesla won measurement results were already for 100 years
hard to digest and couldn't be brought into accord with any theory. Therefore a switching
technical analysis of the by Tesla described and carried out experiments should give us
now information over the nature of the free energy, the tachyon energy, the orgone, or
however fantastic the terms may read.
The Tesla coil, according to the instructions of the inventor, is a flat coil wound like a
spiral in contrast to the copies today on sale which, surely out of ignorance, are mostly
cylindrical. Its peculiarity probably is to be seen in the circumstance, that charges moved
through the wire of the coil inevitably increase their angular velocity towards the centre,
In this way the electrons, which at first are spherical elementary vortices, are pulled apart
to vortex rings like planar discs.
Tesla switches the "secondary" called flat coil between two "terminals". Following he
sends, stimulated by his "primary", charge carriers from one terminal to the other and back
again and produces a standing resonant oscillation.
Mostly replaces Tesla one of both terminals by the earth. He thus assumes, that now the
earth as a spherical electrode takes over the function of one terminal. That he again infers
from the observation, that a by the transmitter wireless fed little lamp goes out, if he cuts
the connection to the ground. Doing so the oscillation collapses. Radio sets on the other
hand can also be operated without grounding, as we know!
The degree of effectiveness of today's distribution technology of current due to the
heating losses lies clearly beneath 100 per cent. Without the losses of the wiring it lies
close to 100 per cent for the discussed one wire energy transmission. There the vortex
rings are guided nicely one after another along the line like beads drawn over a string.
This result even is to be expected, as far as no vortex "jumps off the wire or "falls apart".
For the wireless version Tesla however to his own surprise had to find out that more
energy could be received, than his transmitter produced. The measured degree of
effectiveness lay above 100 per cent! He therefore called his transmitter a "Magnifying
Transmitter" (fig. 9.10). The further transmitter and receiver were away of each other, the
further the received energy increased. Tesla inferred from this, that there had to exist free
energy and that he had caught that too.
Consequently he had built a receiver for free energy and registered for patent (1901,
Patent No. 685,957, fig. 9.9). Tesla states that the amount of energy depends on the size of
the "terminal". Of today's sight we could be willing, to describe this receiver plate as a
solar panel, but we should know, that the apparatus produced energy even at night! In
addition the energy gain was considerable higher than for today's solar panels. Tesla
spoke of "radiations ", of an unknown radiation and he in his lifetime has in vain soughtfor
help of explanation.
The vortex model will also in this question be a valuable help to us.

8.Unified theory ,first telsa physics infomation for engineers

8. Unified theory
With the theory of objectivity the longed for goal of a "theory of everything" (TOE), of an
universal theory, seems to have moved within reach. If in the nineteenth century still
promising field theories and approaches were being discussed, then has at the latest
Einstein's theory of relativity destroyed all hopes in such a theory. Science as a consequence
has become very much more modest and understands a TOE only as the
unification of all known interactions.
Einstein has stated the minimum demand so: "a theory should be favoured by far, in which
the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field together would appear as a whole"
. It is evident that a subjective or relativistic observer theory never is able to achieve
The presented theory of objectivity made it possible that the unification here for the first
time actually has succeeded. This undoubtedly brings science a whole lot further, but it
still is not sufficient to lie one's hands in one's lap being content with oneself. After all we
still know very much more phenomena, which likewise should be unified. After all it is no
accident that both Maxwell and Einstein, to name only two prominent representatives,
after completion of their well-known works have struggled for the question, what sort of
phenomenon it concerns in the case of the temperature and how this could be integrated in
their theory.
The requirement reads: We must be able to derive all basic factors, which influence our
system of units with their basic units, as a compulsionless result from the new theory.
Besides the dimensions of space and time which determine our continuum, the explanation
and unification of the basic factors mass and charge has to be tackled. If we have
succeeded in doing so, we'll also tackle the problem of the fifth and last basic factor,
which until now has put itself in the way of any unified theory as the question of fate, the
problem of the temperature!

8.1 Structure of the field theory
In contrast to Maxwell's theory the new field theory, which we derived from duality, is
also able to describe fields, in which no particles and no quanta exist. It probably is
justified and useful in the sense of a clearer communication, to give the new field a name
of its own.
The author recommends the introduction of the term "hydrotic field". In it should be
expressed, which importance water has for both the like named potential vortex and this
As we already have worked out, the hydrotic field is favoured particularly by polar
materials and by a high dielectricity. Water is a corresponding and in the biosphere of our
planet dominating material.
Whereas we had to correct the concept of a vortex free electric field, we had until now,
considerable, we can take over the description of the magnetic field unchanged. This then
should also be valid for its name. The new field which consists of both correspondingly is
called hydromagnetic field.
In fig. 8.1 we recognize the structure. At the top stands the "hydromagnetic field", which
is described mathematically by the equations of dual electrodynamics in fig. 3.3. It does
not know quanta and as logical consequence neither charge nor mass! If we insert these
equations, Ampere's law and the dual formulated Faraday law of induction, into each
other, then there results as a mathematical description of our space-time-continuum the
fundamental field equation (5.7, fig. 5.1). As a new physical phenomenon the potential
vortex appears, which gives the hydromagnetic field a new and important property: this
field can be quantized!
Starting-point is the wave, which for corresponding interference effects can spontaneously
roll up to a vortex, which as highly concentrated spherical vortex finds a new right to exist
and finds to a new physical reality.
The in the described manner formed particles show specific properties of their own. We
now are able to attribute them for instance a charge or a mass. And these properties also
can be investigated and described individually and isolated from each other. Thus are
formed the two special cases, strange by nature, on the one hand the well-known, with the
help of the Maxwell equations describable "electromagnetic field" and on the other hand
the new "hydrogravitational field".
If we overlap the results of the two special cases, e.g. by adding the force effects of
electric charges and accelerated masses, then we summarized obtain a field, which we
accordingly should call "electrogravitational". This case is not at all unknown. Already
Niels Bohr in this way has calculated the radii of the electron orbits in the hull of his
model of the atom, to mention only one example. We can summarize:
The hydromagnetic field is the all encompassing and with that most important field. Apart
from that the electromagnetic field of the currents and the eddy currents and the hydrogravitational
field of the potentials and the potential vortices merely describe the two
possible and important special cases. For reasons of pure usefulness for every special
case a characteristic factor of description is introduced, the charge and the mass!

8.2 Unification of the interactions
The discovery and introduction of the hydromagnetic field makes the desired unification
possible, because the electromagnetic resp. Maxwell field, which describes the electromagnetic
interaction, and the hydrogravitational field of the gravitation can be derived
from this field as a consequence of the formation of quanta.
The kind of the interaction is caused by the course of the field lines of the field quanta
which form as spherical vortices: the open field lines make the electromagnetic interaction
possible. And the field, lines with a closed course lead to gravitation. Both are a direct
result of the field dependent speed of light. A more perfect unification seems hardly
As the next step the unification with the strong and the weak interaction is required, but it
could be shown that those don't exist at all. It just concerns misinterpretations with much
fantasy, which should help explain the difference between a wrong theory and the physical
Numerous auxiliary terms for the description of the quantum properties exist, like for
instance mass, charge or Planck's quantum of action. The prerequisite for their usability
naturally is the existence of the quanta. But until these have found to a physical reality, the
auxiliary terms are unnecessary. The hydromagnetic field does not know quanta, quantum
properties or auxiliary descriptions. It will be shown that, according to expectation, also
the temperature is a typical quantum property, which comes within the group of the
auxiliary terms. In this way also the temperature is fitted into the unified theory without
Without the by us for reasons of usefulness introduced auxiliary terms the fundamental
field equation is left with its description of a spatial-temporal principle. If a world
equation should exist, then this field equation 5.7 has the best prerequisites.
For the fundamental field equation the division in four parts is repeated like already for the
hydromagnetic field (fig. 8.1). It likewise consists of four individual parts, the wave (b),
the two vortex phenomena (c and d) and the time independent term (e) (fig. 8.2). Whereas
the duality still is combined in the wave, it comes to light clearly for the vortices to again
be combined in the fourth case. Here arise however potentials and currents, which again
can react and oscillate with each other, for instance as L-C-resonant circuit in an electronic
circuit, with which the principle is repeated.
This principle is shown clearer for the phenomenon of the temperature as in all other
cases. If we start at the top in the picture in fig. 8.2 we have an electromagnetic wave,
which is absorbed and thus becomes a vortex. If the vortex falls apart, then eddy losses are
formed. We observe that the temperature rises and propagates in the well-known manner.
We have arrived in the bottom box, but this again can be taken as the top box for the now
following process, because the equation of heat conduction is a vortex equation of type c
or d! We discover a self-similarity:

8.3 Temperature
Following the atomic view, in the case of heat it concerns kinetic energy of the molecules,
which carry out more or less violent oscillations. In the case of gaseous materials with this
concept, basing on mechanical models, actually successful calculations are possible, like
for instance the speed distribution of gases won by Maxwell from theoretical considerations
concerning probability.
But the attempt to apply the formulas of the kinetic theory of gases to solids and liquids
only succeeds, if additional supplements and improvements are introduced. Since at all
events it concerns temperature, thus the same physical quantity, of course also an uniform
interpretation should be demanded, which in addition should stand in full accord to the
presented design of an integrated theory (TOE).
Against the background of the new theory of objectivity we consider, what happens, if for
instance the local field strength is increased by a flying past particle. The matter located at
this point is contracted for a short time. By coming closer to each other, the individual
elementary vortices mutually reinforce their field and are further compressed. Sometime
this process comes to a standstill, is reversed and swings back.
At the same time every single particle, which in this way carries out an oscillation of size,
has an effect on its neighbours with its field, to also stimulate these to the same oscillation,
but delayed by some time. This phenomenon spreads in all directions. The propagation
only will become stationary, if all neighbouring elementary vortices pulsate with the same
amplitude. It now should be recorded:
The oscillation of contraction of the elementary vortices we call temperature.
Also this thermodynamic state variable therefore is a result of the variable speed of light.
At the absolute zero of temperature no oscillation takes place anymore, whereas the upper
limit lies in infinity. Since the cause for temperature represents an oscillation of the local
electromagnetic field strength around the cosmic field strength, the following phenomena
must be considered as excitation and cause, as dictated by the fundamental field equation
1. Electromagnetic waves (b) are able to stimulate matter particles to synchronous oscillations
of contraction by their alternating field. In doing so energy in form of heat is
transferred to the particles, with the result that their temperature is increased. The wave
is absorbed completely, if the thermal oscillation corresponds with the frequency of the
We speak of thermal radiation.
2. But also the two dual vortices, the eddy current (c) and the potential vortex (d) can
cause oscillations of contraction. This immediately becomes clear, if we consider a
vortex as the special case of the wave, in which the oscillation takes place around a
more or less stationary vortex centre. In the case of the decay of vortices, of the
transition of energy from vortices to matter, the increase in temperature is measurable.
In the case of this process of diffusion we speak of eddy losses and of loss heat.

Answers to open questions of thermodynamics:
1. Temperature occurs independent of the state in which the
matter is (unified theory).
2.Temperature even occurs in solids, where a purely kinetic
interpretation fails (unification).
3. Each elementary particle is carrier of a temperature.
4. Expansion with increasing temperature because of the
increasing need for room for larger amplitude of oscillation
(principle: bi-metal-thermometer).
5. For solids the thermal oscillation of size is primarily passed on
by the electrons in the atomic hull. Good electric conductors
therefore at the same time also have a high thermal conductivity.
(principle: electrical resistance thermometer).
6. For gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason
a kinetic auxiliary description becomes applicable.
7. For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely
lose their enveloping electrons, when they change into the
plasma state.
8.The second law of thermodynamics loses its claim to be
absolute and at best reads: with today's technology we are not
capable, to design a cyclic working machine, which does
nothing else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to
convert it into mechanical work.

3. Flying past particles, in particular unbound and free movable charge carriers (e)
produce an alternating field for other fixed particles. Doing so kinetic energy can be
transformed in temperature, thus in energy of pulsation. A good example is the inelastic
collision. But it can also be pointed to numerous chemical reactions. Whoever searches
for a concrete example, takes two objects in his hands and rubs them against one
another. In that case the particles which are at the frictional surfaces are being moved
past each other in very small distance, in this way causing oscillations of pulsation,
which propagate into the inside of the objects according to the thermal conductivity. We
speak of friction heat.
This model concept provides sound explanations for a whole number of open questions
(fig. 8.4), i.e. why the temperature occurs independent of the state (1) and even in solids,
where a purely kinetic interpretation fails (2). Every single elementary particle after all is
carrier of a temperature (3).
With increasing temperature most materials expand, because the need for room, purely
geometrically seen, increases for larger amplitude of oscillation (4). This principle is used
in the case of a bi-metal thermometer.
In the case of solids the thermal oscillation of size is passed on primarily by the electrons
in the atomic hull (5). Good electric conductors therefore at the same time also have a high
thermal conductivity. An example of an application is the electric resistance thermometer.
In the case of gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason a kinetic theory
becomes applicable as an auxiliary description (6).
For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely lose their enveloping
electrons, when they change into the plasma state (7).
Finally the model concept even limits the second law of thermodynamics, which contains
the postulate that it is impossible to design a cyclic working machine, which does nothing
else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to convert it into mechanical work (8).
8.4 Heat energy
The discussed oscillation of contraction shows two characteristic properties, which must
be looked at separately: the amplitude and the frequency.___________________________
Temperature describes solely the amplitude of the oscillation of size.
The heat energy however is determined by both,
by the amplitude as well as by the frequency.
Consequently the ideas of temperature and heat energy should be kept strictly apart. It
therefore isn't allowed to set this oscillation equal to the electromagnetic wave in tables of
To be correct two tables should be given, one for the wave, characterized by a propagation
with the speed of light, and another one for oscillations of contraction, thus for stationary
phenomena and phenomena bound to matter. The latter indeed can likewise propagate
relatively fast by fluctuations of pressure in the case of acoustical sound frequencies or by
free movable charge carriers in the case of heat conduction, but the velocity of
propagation for sound or heat is as is well-known still considerably smaller than the speed
of light. Thus an assignment without doubts can be made as to which kind of oscillation it

8.5 Sound
The close relationship of longitudinal sound waves with the oscillations of contraction of
thermally heated matter becomes particularly clear for ultrasound, where the arising heat
in the inside of the body which is exposed to sound can be measured directly. The fundamental
difference consists of the fact that the produced sound waves not only have the
same frequency, but also the same phase, what needs not be the case for the temperature.
The apparently uncoordinated occurring oscillations of size of the temperature, which as a
rule occupy more space if the intensity increases, form a "thermal noise".
The oscillation of size with the same phase is not realizable at all in a spatial formation of
particles, with one exception, the case that all particles expand and afterwards again
contract simultaneously and in the same time. We can observe such a synchronization of
the pulsation oscillations of all elementary vortices in the case of a pulsar. For us a pulsar
looks like a "lighthouse" in space which shines with a fixed frequency.
In reality it as well can concern a constantly shining sun, which carries out a synchronized,
thermal oscillation of size, like a gigantic low-frequency loudspeaker. During the phase of
contraction of the star its emitted light stays back. To us the pulsar looks dark. In addition
the field strength is extremely increased and the light becomes correspondingly slow.
During the phase of expansion the conditions are reversed and we observe a light flash.
Exactly the pulsar unambiguously confirms the here presented theory of the variable, field
dependent speed of light.
The well-known fact that the microcosm represents a copy of the macrocosm, already
suggests that each atom is capable of the same oscillation of size as a pulsar: if next to the
oscillating atom a resting one is placed, then does this one see a smaller field during the
phase of contraction because of the increasing distance. It hence becomes bigger itself. If
the pulsating neighbouring atom afterwards expands, it however becomes smaller. The at
first resting atom in this way becomes a "pulsar" oscillating with opposite phase.
The oscillating atom has stimulated the neighbouring atom as well to an oscillation of size,
and this process will be repeated with the closest neighbouring atom. We speak of heat
To which extent the average distance between neighbouring atoms is influenced while a
material is heated, solely depends on the structure of the atomic lattice. For matter with a
fixed lattice according to expectation a smaller heat expansion will occur, as for the
unordered structure of gases, in which we find confirmed well-known relations.
In a for potential vortices characteristic property sound waves and thermal waves of
contraction correspond:

8.6 Basic principle of cybernetics
Surely can be attributed also information to the potential vortex. But how should information
be formed? Is information a form of energy? Energy occurs as a consequence of
the formation of potential vortices. Without this phenomenon there wouldn't be any
Can information be described by means of a mathematical equation?
To be able to answer these questions, we subject the fundamental field equation to a
control technical analysis. If it actually concerns a world equation, then an answers should
be possible.
We again take up Ampere's law 5.1* from fig. 5.1 and remodel it according to the time
derivative (5.1**). If the equation now is integrated over the time (5.1***), a signal flow
diagram can be drawn (fig. 8.6).
The structure of a regulatory circuit is clearly visible. The individual paragraphs are
described in an analogous way as for a technical control system. The execution of the curl
operation on the field pointer of the magnetic field strength H and the multiplication with
accordingly form an adaptation of driving factors. In the comparator the difference for
control from driving factor w and controlling factor x is formed and supplied to an
integral controller. The control path has a purely proportional behaviour and consists of
the processing of the measurement value of the electric field strength E with in which
describes the relaxation time of the eddy currents.
In technical control systems such a structure is found remarkably seldom, although it has
an invaluable advantage: it possesses a stability in principle. Not a single adjustment of
the controller exists, in which the closed regulatory circuit could become unstable,
because it shows a proportionally delaying behaviour of first order. Possible changes of
the adjustment of the controller or of the control path merely take effect on the speed, with
which the regulatory circuit is able to follow changes of the driving factor.
This control technical basic principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. It meets
us again in identical form in the second field equation 5.4*, the extended Faraday's law of
induction. In dual formulation the electric field strength now appears as input factor and
the magnetic field strength as output factor. Both regulatory circuits are coupled and
connected with each other, by deriving their driving factor each time from the controlling
factor of their dual partner. Is this structure actually efficient and meaningful?
Every regulatory circuit needs a target value, which is dictated from the outside. Let us
think of the numerous control systems in nature. At all events a higher intelligence would
be necessary for all the target values. This problematic is comparable to the question, what
existed first: the egg from which a hen hatches or the hen without which no eggs can exist.
Without a given target, evolution would not exist.
The connected regulatory circuit structure provides the matching answer: cybernetic
systems, which usually and as is well-known strive to a state of balance, get their target
value from their dual "partner". It is crucial that correspondingly dual systems are selfsufficient
and can form and develop independently out of themselves without target values
of a third side. This basic principle of cybernetics undoubtedly is brilliant.

8.7 Adaptive regulatory circuit structure
If out of the nowhere something like the cosmos or like life on earth should form, then the
connected regulatory circuit structure basing on duality probably is the only possible and
conceivable. Thus it merely concerns the control technical representation of the fundamental
field equation.
The question for the efficiency not only concerns the stability, but equally the possibility
of both systems, to oscillate and to communicate with each other by the coupling and the
associated exchange of information.
Fig. 8.7 shows the signal flow diagram of both regulatory circuits. These are switched in
line and form a coupled circuit, which itself can be interpreted as a third regulatory circuit.
Also this one shows a change of sign in the circuit like the other two circuits.
The information technical interpretation could turn out as follows: information about a
regulatory process in the lower regulatory circuit F11 caused for instance by a disturbance
is communicated over the coupled circuit to the upper regulatory circuit FJ2. In this case
F11 acts as transmitter and F12 as receiver of the information. Afterwards both exchange
their places, because F12 for its part reacts by a regulatory process and reports to F11. The
regulatory circuits adapt to each other. Obviously it concerns the basic structure of an
adaptive regulatory circuit.
To analyse the coupled circuit the examination of individual special cases is
recommended. If the regulatory circuits F11 and F12 are opened up in the way that the time
constants tau1 and tau2 go towards infinity, then the double integral effect is left. Analyses of
technical regulatory circuit teach us that such systems always tend to instability. Because
in addition the target value is zero, an oscillation around zero will arise, which we call
electromagnetic wave.
If one of both time constants becomes finite, e.g. then damping of the waves will occur.
The "subordinate" cascade regulatory circuit F12 will adjust itself and now has a proportional
delaying behaviour of first order. Together with the integral controller of the open
F11- circuit the coupled circuit will show the typical and more or less optimal regulatory
behaviour of a damped oscillation.
These special cases correspond with the mathematical (fig. 5.2) and the physical (fig. 5.3)
interpretation of the fundamental field equation. In addition a spatial rotation, a swirling
will occur because of the double execution of the curl operation.
If interpreted control technically then vortices are the temporally stable, spatial swing of a
field pointer around a centre, the vortex centre.
Without potential vortices no stability, no matter, no energy nor information would exist!
As can be looked up in Goethe's Faust, it always has been a desire of humanity, to find
out, "what keeps the world together in the heart of hearts".

8.8 Information
The search for an answer for numerous philosophers and physicists was tantamount to the
search for a world formula. Of course mustn't be forgotten that a formula only is a
mathematical description and never the physical reality itself. It is a mathematical tool in
the hand of a person and not the world or the cosmos itself, which he tries to understand.
What keeps the world together in the heart of hearts, has to be more than only a pure
apparatus of formulas. Actually the fundamental field equation tells us more. It reveals us
a basic principle basing on duality in which the dual partners mutually dictate target
values and goals. This principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. Apart from the
"self regulation" it obviously also has the fundamental possibility of a "self
organization" and the "generation of information". The field equations of the
hydromagnetic field thus are the starting-point for the formation not only of matter and
energy, but also of information. Accordingly holds:
Information is nothing but a structure of electromagnetic vortex fields!
This statement is new and to a large extent incompatible with the conception world of
Norbert Wiener, who goes as the founder of cybernetics. From N. Wiener stems the
sentence: "information is information, not matter and not energy".
We hold against it that obviously a fairly direct connection exists. We have worked out
that only the vortex can show a stable adaptive regulatory circuit structure. Only the
vortex and not the wave exists in two forms of formation dual to each other, and the
principle of duality again is the prerequisite for the formation of information, of self
organization and finally for the evolution. In fig. 8.8 well-known dual partnerships are
listed. From it follows in a consistent way that for the production of information without
exception the electromagnetic vortices should be considered.
But how can this so important duality occur, how can it form? This question is closely
associated with the question of the formation of vortices. The signal flow diagram (fig.
8.7) to that says that the dual regulatory circuits F1 and F2 can only exist by the coupled
circuit, which provides them the necessary target values and at the same time forwards the
respective information. In this way of the oscillations and the more or less damped wave
F1 and F2 communicate with each other.
The electromagnetic wave serves solely the
mediation of information and energy.
With that falls a central role upon the wave, so that vice versa is valid:
Without wave no vortices, no duality and
consequently no evolution can exist.
According to the to date state of knowledge the basic principle of cybernetics forms the
basis for matter and energy as well as for information. Since the wave can only serve the
transmission of information, the principle of duality and the vortex will function as
carriers of information. We are entitled, to speak of vortex information, this by no means
is characterized by special frequencies or modulations of frequencies. This is prevented by
the property of the vortices which allows them to change the frequency. On the other hand
various configurations of vortices are possible and numerous combinations and modulations
are conceivable.
If technical apparatus generate vortices, then they produce information. Here a serious
danger with regard to the environmental compatibility can not be excluded!

8.9 Philosophy of nature
Seen in the view of the philosophy of nature now two dual points of view are possible.
The optimistic one would be:
We and our environment on the one hand are a result of the cybernetic principle and on
the other hand of our observation point of view which should be valued relativistically.
If really everything should be electromagnetism, a phenomenon which can't be grasped
directly by humans, then the pessimist would come to the conclusion: everythins is
nothing. What we observe is nothins but a deception of the senses. Perhaps therefore
famous philosophers of antiquity, like Empedokles or Demokritos have ended their life in
the crater of the Etna. According to the theory of the atom of Demokritos (470 to 380
B.C.) the formation of matter, earth and celestial bodies will occur by means of formation
of vortices!
Empedokles (482 to 420 B.C.) was the first to develop a theory basing on four elements,
which was continued and improved by Plato (428 to 348 B.C.) and Aristotle (384 to 322
B.C.). Accordingly these elements are changeable into each other and mixable with each
other. From them all bodies are build up.
The terms "air, water, fire and earth", with which the philosophers have described the four
elements, are of course not identical with the ones in our translation and conception world,
but they were used in a philosophical sense as a substitute for the description of the
respective basic principle.
There also have been different approaches, to translate these terms differently, e.g. by an
assignment to the four states of matter (solid, liquid, gaseous, plasma). But the ancient
texts don't get easier to read in that way.
Fig. 8.9 shows the obvious assignment to the four building parts of the fundamental field
equation 5.7. It would be worth an attempt, to exchange the terms in the translations of
ancient texts and to translate air with wave, water with potential vortex and fire with eddy
current. The term earth has two sides, which should be translated with potential instead of
wood and current instead of metal.
Let's try the translation this way with the theory of Plato, by correspondingly translating
anew the talk of Timaios about the formation of the world. The perception of smell then is
described as follows: " the potential vortex turns into waves (or) the wave into
potential vortices, the smells are formed during this transition, and smells are smoke or
fog. But fog is the transition of waves into vortices, the transition of the vortex into waves
however smoke".
Plato here provides an indisputable and conclusive interpretation of the fundamental field
equation. In this equation the potential vortex acts as damping term in the wave equation,
what in the case of waves rolling up to vortices will show to the observer in the way that
the electromagnetic waves and therefore also the light will be damped. We say, the
visibility gets worse and speak of fog. If the damping phenomenon disappears again, as
the potential vortices break up, then Plato speaks of smoke.
Numerous ancient texts, which until now only could be "interpreted" philosophically, in
this way turn out to be a rational textbook description of natural scientific phenomena.
They anyway only get readable and understandable for the general public with the modern
technical terms.

7. Proof ,first telsa physics infomation for engineers

Ample evidence is available for the correctness of the theory of objectivity. The field
dependent change in length is observed and used as magnetostriction or electrostriction.
If a ferromagnetic material, e.g. a nickel rod, is brought into an alternating magnetic field,
then field dependent longitudinal length oscillations are observed. In the same manner
barium titanate or quartz crystal oscillates in the electric field if a high-frequency
alternating voltage is applied.
A practical application forms the production of ultrasound.
In this chapter are, as already announced, the quantum properties of the elementary
particles calculated and in this way is furnished perhaps the most convincing proof for the
existence of potential vortices and for the correctness of the field-theoretical approach
and the theory which is based on it.
A special challenge represents the calculation of the particle mass. This mass stretches
from 207 electron masses of the myon over 1839 of the neutron into the order of
magnitude of 18513 electron masses (Y°). Doing so not only can be tested, if the
calculated values correspond with the measured ones. Also the gaps have to correspond,
i.e. where there doesn't exist a discrete mathematical solution also no particle should exist.
The fig. 7.0 standing on the left page anticipates the result and shows that even this strict
condition is fulfilled! The agreement of the calculated with the measured results is
excellent. If in individual cases small deviations become visible, we always have to bear in
mind that the measurements as a rule are analysed statistically and the results are falsified
if small particles creep in unrecognized. Particle physics nowadays has at its disposal
extremely precise gauges, but even here remaining errors can't be excluded.
Quantum physics is occupied with further taking apart the elementary particles into
hypothetic particles, the quarks, and to sort these according to properties and symmetries.
Seen strictly causal this procedure thus corresponds to the quantum physical approach.
We however have taken the field-theoretical approach, and this excludes the introduction
of hypothetic particles from the start. It should be our goal to derive and to explain the
quantum structure as a field property. Yes, we even want to calculate it, with which we
would have overtaken quantum physics in the scientific competition with one leap!
Strong support our approach has experienced by current experiments, in which matter was
transformed in electromagnetic waves - practically the reversal of the rolling up of waves
to vortices. To do so at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (David Pritchard and
others) sodium atoms were dematerialized in waves by lattice scattering. According to
Einstein one surely could have blown the whole M.I.T. in the air with the occurring mass
defect; but don't worry, no emission of energy whatsoever has been observed, entirely as
predicted by the vortex theory.

7.1 Elementary vortices
We had derived the electron and the positron as elementary vortices (fig. 4.3). Before we
can go in the calculation, we must gain a clear picture of the possible configurations of
vortices, which for reason of the derived properties are possible. For that we start with the
elementary vortex and afterwards we predict the behaviour of interaction which can be
Actually only one single particle is really elementary. According to the realizations of the
new theory it is an elementary vortex in the form of a sphere. Its size is determined by the
speed of light and this again by the local field strength; its stability is founded in the
concentration effect of the potential vortex. The whirling takes place everywhere with the
speed of light, even in the vortex centre, where all field lines run together, where the field
increases infinitely and the speed of light goes to zero. This last circumstance owes the
elementary vortex its localization.
We can attribute a charge to this vortex for reason of the field lines which on the outside
run towards infinity and which we can measure (fig. 4.3). This is the smallest indivisible
unit, the elementary charge e. Structure and course of the field lines suggest to understand
and to calculate the elementary vortex as a spherical capacitor. By basing on the classical
radius of the electron re given in fig. 6.3 the capacity according to equation 6.4 is
calculated to be:
Here the theory of objectivity has provided us the realization that even for a change of the
radius of the electron the capacity remains unchanged constant (6.30), and this entirely
corresponds to our observation.
Between the hull of the elementary vortex, measured at the radius re, and its centre,
respectively also with regard to infinity, there exists according to equation 6.31 the tension
voltage of:
Ue = e/Ce = 511 kV (6.31*)
It as well is constant and independent of the size of the elementary vortex.
Since a different solution is refused, we'll have to assume that all elementary particles
consist of an integer multiple of elementary vortices. For that the amassing, like closely
packed tennis balls, or the overlapping of individual vortices in the form of shells, like in
the case of an onion (phenomenon of transport) can be considered.
The among each other occurring forces of attraction can be traced back to the fact that
every elementary vortex is compressed by the field of its neighbour as a consequence of
the field dependent speed of light. This field as a rule is for the small distances
considerably larger than the field on the outside. Therefore do compound elementary
particles not have the twofold or triple mass, but at once the 207-fold (myon) or the 1836-
fold (proton) mass. After all there is no other explanation for the fact that there don't exist
lighter particles (with a mass less than 207 electron masses)!
a. The electron-positron pair
b. . The e- - e+ pair for a small distance:
138 matter and anti-matter
7.2 Matter and anti-matter
For the amassing or overlapping of elementary vortices several cases must be distinguished,
because two inverse forms of formation are possible for the elementary vortex:
the negatively charged electron and the positively charged positron. Whereas in the case
of the electron the vortex produces a component of the electric field which points from the
inside to the outside, has the field in the case of the positron the opposite direction for
reason of a reversed swirl direction.
This statement can be generalized: if we consider the elementary particles from the
outside, then we assign the particles with a swirl direction identical to that of the electron
to the world of matter and call the particles with the opposite swirl direction anti-matter. It
now is strongly recommended, to take colours to hand, in order to optically clarify the
properties of vortices. The electron will be marked as a green sphere and the antiparticle,
the positron, as a red sphere.
If we now look into the world of matter, then appears our world of matter to us "green",
the world of anti-matter however "red". The uniform green colour of all the in our world
existing elementary particles however doesn't exclude that red anti-vortices can exist
hidden in the inside of the green vortices, where we can't discover them. But they must be
completely covered, otherwise a disastrous reaction occurs, the pair annihilation, as a
consequence of the oppositely directed property of the vortices which cancel out.
By means of the pair annihilation a dematerialization can occur, because every
elementary vortex keeps in its inside the same amount of energy with opposite sign and
the fusion of two inverse particles can result in a zero sum of the energy. The best known
example is the annihilation of an electron-positron pair under emission of radiation
discovered by Klemperer in 1934. In the upper representation (fig. 7.2a) the elementary
vortices still are symmetrical, but the outside field lines already are "bent" and linked
together in such a way that, with the exception of the ones in the direction of the axis, no
interaction takes place which can be measured.
The two particles for reason of the different charge approach each other quickly, and the
closer they are, the larger the mutual force of attraction becomes; a vicious circle, which
leads to the asymmetry shown in the lower sketch (fig. 7.2b) and only comes to rest, if
both particles have destroyed themselves mutually.
The electron and the positron had the same amount of, but oppositely directed swirl
activity, so that purely arithmetically seen a zero sum of the rest energy results. But it
should be paid attention to both particles having some kinetic energy on the occasion of
the relative motion to each other and if they rotate around their own axis also rotational
energy. An emission of annihilation radiation occurs, is the explanation of particle
With the knowledge of the photon (fig. 4.6) we can interpret the annihilation radiation as a
consequence of the phenomenon of transport. The faster and consequently smaller vortex,
for instance the green one, slips into the red one and sees the green inside, which is
compatible for it. Unfortunately it only can remain there, as long as it is smaller, thus is
faster, and therefore it shoots out on the other side again. Now the electromagnetic force
of attraction fully takes effect. It is slowed down and the red vortex correspondingly
accelerates. The process is reversed.
These around each other oscillating vortices, so we had derived, have a characteristic
frequency (colour), are polarizable and are moving forward with the speed of light as a
consequence of the open vortex centre. It therefore concerns the photon.
140 Positronium
Fig. 7.3: Theoretical final state of the positronium
= static -quant (photon).
proof ______________________________________________________________ 141
7.3 Positronium
But before the two elementary vortices, the electron and the positron, are annihilated
under emission of radiation, they will for a short time take a shell-shaped, a bound state, in
which one vortex overlaps the other.
Its formation we can imagine as follows: an electron, flying past a resting positron, is
cached by this for reason of the electromagnetic attraction and spirals on an elliptic path
towards the positron. In doing so its angular velocity increases considerably. It will be
pulled apart to a flat disc for reason of the high centrifugal forces, to eventually lay itself
around the positron as a closed shell.
Now the red positron sees the electron vortex so to speak "from the inside" and doing so it
sees as well red; because the green vortex has a red centre and vice versa! The result is the
in fig. 7.3 given configuration.
The number of field lines, which run from the red border of the positron in the direction of
the centre, is identical to the number, which point towards the green border of the electron.
Here already the same state has been reached as in the centre, which corresponds to the
state at infinity. That means that no field lines point from the green border to the outside;
seen from the outside the particle behaves electrically neutral. It doesn't show any
electromagnetic interaction with its surroundings.
If the particle were long-living, then it undoubtedly would be the lightest elementary
particle besides the electron; but without stabilizing influence from the outside the
positronium can't take the in fig. 7.3 shown state at all. The positron takes up the kinetic
energy which is released if the electron becomes a shell around it. But before the bound
state can arise, which would identify the positronium as an elementary particle, the equal
rights of both vortices comes to light. With the same right, with which the electron wants
to overlap the positron, it itself vice versa could also be overlapped.
If the stabilization of the one or the other state from the outside doesn't occur, then the
stated annihilation under emission of y-quanta is the unavoidable consequence (fig. 4.6).
142 dipol moment
Fig. 7.4: Two electrons with oppositely directed spin
proof 143
7.4 Dipole moment
As electrically charged spheres elementary vortices have a magnetic dipole moment along
their axis of rotation as a consequence of the rotation of their own (fig. 7.4). This is
measurable very precisely and for the most important elementary particles also known
quantitatively. In contrast to the angular momentum the magnetic moment can't be
constant according to the here presented theory. It should slightly change, if we increase
the field strength in the laboratory.
In a particle consisting of several elementary vortices the vortices mutually increase the
local field strength. Therefore we measure at the proton, which consists of three vortices,
not the triple, but only the 2,793-fold of the nuclear magneton which can be expected for
reason of its mass. Also the neutron has instead of the double only the 1,913-fold nuclear
magneton. The deviations therefore are explicable as a consequence of the surrounding
Prerequisite for this point are two other, still unanswered, key questions of quantum
XII: Why is measured for the proton approximately the triple of the magnetic dipole
moment which can be expected for reason of the charge?
XIII: Why does the neutron, as an uncharged particle, actually have a magnetic
These questions can only be brought to a conclusive answer, if we have derived the vortex
structures of the respective particles.
The elementary vortex, as a consequence of the spin along its axis, forms a magnetic north
pole and a south pole. Another possibility to interact with an external field or with other
particles is founded on this property. This shall be studied by means of two electrons.
which form an electron pair.
For reason of the equal charge the two electrons at first will repel each other. If they rotate
of their own they however will mutually contract, which, seen from the outside, is
interpreted as a force of attraction. And in addition will they align their axes of rotation
antiparallelly. While they now rotate in the opposite direction, a magnetic force of
attraction occurs.
As is shown in fig. 7.4, the magnetic dipole field in this way is compensated towards the
outside, as is clarified by the field line (H) with a closed course. Between both electrons a
space free of E-field stretches. If both vortices are a small distance apart they lay
themselves around this space like two half-shells of a sphere. A particle forms which seen
from the outside is magnetically neutral, but it carries the double elementary charge (fig.
The exceptional affinity is always restricted to two vortices of equal charge with an
opposite direction of rotation. Further vortices can't be integrated anymore and are
repelled. This property of vortices covers the quantum condition (Pauli's exclusion
principle) for the spin quantum number perfectly.
144 myon
Fig. 7.5: The mvon and the electric field E(x)
of the three elementary vortices
proof 145
7.5 Myon
We now have discussed all conceivable possibilities, which two elementary vortices can
form: the creation of a pair for like charge and the annihilation under emission of photons
via the formation of the positronium as an intermediate result for unequal charge. Next
another elementary vortex shall be added and all different possibilities and configurations
will be derived, which can be formed by amassing or overlapping.
The positronium can, as said, only take the in fig. 7.3 shown bound structure, if it is
stabilized from the outside. This task now a further electron shall take over. According to
the shell model the innermost elementary vortex an electron (e-), is overlapped by a
positron (e+) and that again overlapped by an electron (e-).
With an in the sum single negative charge, a completely symmetric structure as well as a
half-integer spin this particle will show a behaviour corresponding to a large extent to that
of the electron. Merely the mass will be considerably larger, because every vortex each
time compresses the other two.
It therefore concerns the myon which also is called "heavy electron". The myon
was discovered 1937 in the cosmic radiation (Anderson and others).
In fig. 7.5 are drawn above each other the shell-shaped structure of the myon and the
electric field E(x) of the three elementary vortices.
It is visible that merely in the proximity of the particle the actual course of the field
deviates from and is smaller, than the course which theoretically can be expected for a
single negatively charged body. The difference is marked by a hatching.
We now can tackle the calculation of the myon. For that the following considerations to
begin with are useful:
Mass is an auxiliary term founded in usefulness, which describes the influence of the
electromagnetic field on the speed of light and with that on the spatial extension of the
"point mass".
Without exception the local cosmic field Eo has an effect on a free and unbound
elementary vortex, thus on an individual e- or e+, and determines so its size and its mass.
But as long as we haven't determined this field strength, the calculation of its quantum
properties won't succeed.
Instead the masses of compound particles will be compared to each other, which are so
heavy that the field strength of the neighbouring vortices is predominant over the basic
field E0, so that a neglect of Eo seems to be allowed. The course of the calculation is made
for all elementary particles in the same manner, which is explained hereafter.
146 calculation of the vortex fields
Fig. 7.6: Calculation of the electric field strength E(r) of
the myon from its dependency on radius
proof 147
7.6 Calculation of the vortex fields
The tension voltage of an elementary vortex, like for a spherical capacitor, is determined
by integrating over the electric field strength from the inner radius ri up to the outer radius
For the electron (ri = 0 und ra = re) we already have carried out the integration and
determined the tension voltage to be 511 kV (equation 6.31 *).
Doing so we further had discovered that it won't change, if the radius r varies. Even for a
shell configuration, in which electrons and positrons alternately overlap, the approach is
U1 = U2 = U3 = U4 = ... = Un (7.2)
At a certain radius all elementary vortices show the same density of field lines and with
that also the identical field strength, so that we can solve the integral (7.1) for the each
time neighbouring vortex shells and can compare the results:
At the radius r1 with E(r1) = E1 the agreement, according to equation 7.1* (fig. 7.6), is
valid for the innermost and the overlapped vortex shell.
At the radius r2 with E(r2) = E2 the agreement according to equation 7.1** (fig. 7.6) is
valid analogously for the 2nd and 3rd shell.
If still more shells are present, then we can arbitrarily repeat this procedure. For the radius
of each shell we always obtain relation 7.3, which, related to the innermost radius,
provides the following simple expression for the individual radii:
r 2 = 2 * r 1 ; r3 = 3 • r1; ... ; rn = n * r1 (7.4)
From the comparison of the integration results 7.1* and 7.1** follows further that all
elementary vortices produce the same field strength:
E1 = E2 = E3 = ... = En (7.5)
We infer from the transformation table (fig. 6.18, eq. 6.27) that the field strengths E and H
decrease with 1/r. In fig. 7.5 the decrease of the fields with 1/r is shown. Up to the radius
r, the field of the innermost vortex E1 has worn off to the value E31 = - E1 • (r1/r3).
This field is overlapped by E32 = E2 * (r2/r3) as well as the cosmic basic field Eo:
E(r3) = E31+ E32+ E0 = E1 • (r2 - r1)/r3 + Eo (7.6)
The local basic field Eo is not known, but it is very small with regard to the field of the
neighbouring vortex shells, so that a neglect seems to be allowed.
From equation (7.6) in this way follows with the radius relation (7.4):
For the shell-shaped configuration of the myon (fig. 7.5) relation (7.7) indicates, which
field the outside vortex shell is exposed to. From this can already be seen, how much it is
compressed thanks to the field dependent speed of light and how much its mass as a
consequence is increased.
148 calculation of the proton
Structure of the proton p+:
structure consisting of two shells, inner vortices with 2 • E1,
field strength at the outer radius r2:
E ( r 2 ) = 2 * E2 1 = 2 * E 1 ( r 1 / r 2 ) = E1 (7.8)
Comparison of p+ (7.8) with u- (7.7) (ze = number of the elementary
vortices being involved with)
in building up the structure, here each time ze = 3):
Comparison of the radii with E ~ l / r (6.27)
Theory of objectivity (fig. 6.18): m~l/r2 (6.34)
mp/me = 9 * (mu/me) = 9 * 207 = 1863 (7.11)
Measurement value, proton mass: mp = 1836 • me
measurement value myon mass mu = 207 * me
myon calculated value: mp = 204 * me. (error = 1,5% )
Since we, by using this calculation method, for the first time succeeded
in deriving the mass of an elementary particle from that of another
particle, the particle mass isn't a constant of nature anymore!
Fig. 7.7: Calculation of the proton
proof________________________________________________________________ 149
7.7 Calculation of the proton
If we again remember the affinity of two elementary vortices, which rotate with opposite
spin. They align their axis of rotation antiparallel and form a very probable, but not
particularly tight bound pair (fig. 7.4).
If we this time start with a positron pair, then does this pair have a double positive
elementary charge. The two e+ hence exert a particularly big force of attraction on
electrons flying past them. If they have cached one and put it round as a shell, like a coat,
then they will never again give it back! To again remove the electron, a triple positive
charge would be necessary. But such a particle can't exist at all. The new particle
therefore has an absolute stability and a very big mass, because the positron pair is
considerably compressed by its outer shell. The total charge is single positive. With these
properties it actually only can concern the proton. Its structure is shown in fig. 7.7.
We can start from the assumption that both positrons are very close together in the inside
and thus each forms the half of a sphere. For the calculation of the proton mass we then
can assume as an approximation a structure of two shells, in which the inner vortex will
have the double charge and the double field (2 * E1). With equation 7.4 the field strength at
the outer radius r2 is:
E(r2) = 2*E21 = 2*E1*(r1/r2) = E1 (7.8)
If we want to compare the results of the p+ (7.8) and the (7.7), then it should be
considered that the field of the innermost elementary vortex E1 only is equal, if the number
ze of the elementary vortices involved in building up the particle is identical. Here with
each time ze = 3 this is the case. Because of equation 6.27 (E, H ~ 1/r) now also the radii
are comparable:
The mass of a particle first is determined by the number of the elementary vortices ze.
According to the theory of objectivity (fig. 6.18) however also the radius has an influence
on the mass: m ~ 1/r2 (6.34)
This proportionality should be applied to the - comparison.
The calculation provides a nine times bigger mass for the proton with regard to the mass
of the myon. Therefore the mass of the proton related to the mass of the electron is:
mp/me = 9* = 9*207 = 1863 (7.11)
It would be favourable, to start from the with measuring techniques determined value for
the mass of the proton mp/me = 1836 and calculate backwards the related mass of the
Then we obtain 204 as the calculated value instead of the measurement value =
The reason for the deviation of 1.5 percent is caused by the neglect of the cosmic field Eo
with regard to the field of the neighbouring elementary vortex. This neglect takes very
much less effect for the relatively heavy proton than for the light myon.
The cosmic field therefore will compress the myon more strongly and increase the mass
more strongly as is calculated here, in agreement with the measurement results.
Summarizing: since we, by using this calculation method, for the first time succeeded in
deriving the mass of an elementary particle from that of another particle, the particle
mass isn't a constant of nature anymore!
150 ,,strong interaction"
Fig. 7.8: The proton and the electric field of the three
elementary vortices in x-, y- and z-direction
proof 151
7.8 "Strong interaction"
A central question of nuclear physics concerns the forces which keep the atomic nucleus,
which consists of many neutrons and protons, together and give it its very good stability in
spite of the like positive charge (key question XIV fig. 7.13).
According to today's textbook opinion (course of the field indicated with a in fig. 7.8) the
forces of repulsion between the individual protons increase further as the distance gets
smaller, to obtain immense values within the nucleus. They theoretically had to be
overcome by new and unknown nuclear forces. Therefore physicists assume the
hypothesis of a "strong interaction". But they are mistaken.
The answer to this open question is provided by the course of the field (b) for the proton,
sketched in fig. 7.8. We see that the electric field at first indeed still increases if we
approach the proton, but in the proximity it contrary to all expectations decreases again
until it is zero. With that then also any force of repulsion has vanished! But the course of
the field follows without compulsion from the overlap of the three individual elementary
vortex fields.
The field direction in the z-direction even is reversed! In this topsy-turvy world, in theory,
an electromagnetic force of attraction between two like charged protons can occur. We
A strong interaction doesn't exist at all. The usually given values for "range" and
"strength" just represent a misinterpretation. The hatched drawn area marks the difference
which is misinterpreted by quantum physics. The model concept over and above that
answers another mysterious property of the proton. As an electrically charged particle with
a spin it first of all should form a magnetic moment for reason of the rotating charge. But
until now the measurable order of magnitude couldn't be explained.
7.9 Magnetic moment of the proton
If the inner positrons rotate around each other with oppositely pointing spin, then the
magnetic field line is already closed within the particle and no effect in x- or y-direction is
observable from the outside.
As pair they however still can rotate together around the z-axis and they'll do that. The
overlapping electron for reason of its rotation of its own will likewise build up a magnetic
dipole moment along its axis of rotation. It also will align its axis in the z-direction, so that
now all three elementary vortices have one field axis. Being comparable to individually
"elementary magnets" aligned in the same direction they produce a triple magnetic
moment (key question XII fig. 7.13).
If we namely would start with a single positively charged body according to the theory of
quantum mechanics, then we would have expected the value of the nuclear magneton pm
as the magnetic moment for the proton pm = . Opposite to that provide
experiments with protons the approx. threefold value as already predictable by the new
vortex theory. In addition does the direction of the vector pmp correspond with the spinaxis,
so as if the proton were negatively charged. The reason for that is that only the
outermost elementary vortex determines the spin of the particle, and that is actually a
negatively charged electron! Also this excellent agreement in the case of the proton can be
judged as proof for the correctness of the vortex model.
: The nuclear magneton has the value of: pmk = 5,0508 • 10-27 Am2
152 structure of the neutron
Fig. 7.10: The neutron with magnetic dipole field H
proof 153
7.10 Structure of the neutron
Until now could not be solved, why despite its missing charge also the neutron n° has a
magnetic moment. The experimentally determined value is approx. the double of the
nuclear magneton. Further was with measuring techniques an only 0,14% bigger mass
with regard to the proton determined. The difference is approximately two and a half
electron masses. And how reads the answer in the view of the potential vortex theory?
It is obvious that a positively charged proton and a negatively charged electron mutually
attract and amass together (fig. 7.10a). A pair annihilation can't occur, because the
electron, which jackets both positrons, prevents this. The formation of an outer shell is not
permitted by the high stability of the proton. It would have to be a positron shell, which
instead of neutrality would produce a double positive charge. Conceivable is however the
configuration, in which one of the two e+ of the proton takes up the e- in its inside and
overlaps it (fig. 7.10b).
At first appears the amassing of p+ and e- to be the obvious answer to the structure of the
neutron also in view of the small increase in mass. Since both elementary particles (p+ and
e-) have a spin, will they align their axes of rotation antiparallelly and rotate against one
another, exactly like an electron pair. But we now have unequal conditions: the proton
brings the triple magnetic moment, the electron however only the single, and its field line
will be closed by the proton. The difference which remains is the measurable double
nuclear magneton, with which key question XIII (fig. 7.13) would be answered
This structure is shown in fig. 7.10a and has as rest mass the by only one electron mass
increased proton mass, but it will deviate from this value, when the unequal partner come
closer. Doing so the electron will be more strongly compressed by the heavier proton as
vice versa.
Mass, magnetic moment and charge thus correspond to a large extent with the
measurement values. Problems are seen concerning the spin and the stability.
Set of problems concerning spin: both the e- and the p+ have a half-integer spin, for which
reason this configuration should have an integer spin.
Set of problems concerning stability: the neutron decays as is well-known in a p+ and an
e- , but this object should be shorter-lived as determined by experiments. If namely the
partner come each other very close, then the field strength of the p+, contrary to
expectation, doesn't increase but decreases, as is shown in fig. 7.8. The e- therefore can
only be bound very, very loosely; in z-direction it even will be repelled!
For these reasons is the open structure, which is shown in fig. 7.10a, not feasible as an
isolated elementary particle, but only in a spatially extended network, like it is present in
an atomic nucleus. In this case the neutron is, as is well-known, lighter by the mass defect,
which is interpreted as binding energy.
Possibly it only concerns an intermediate stage. The heavier final product of the n° then
could look like is shown in fig. 7.10b. For this version the line of the magnetic field
already is closed partly within the particle, so that also here the approx. double nuclear
magneton remains as a rest with a sense of orientation, as if the neutron were negatively
Without charge and with the 1/2 spin it in this configuration fulfils all important quantum
properties of the neutron, even that of the stability.
154 calculation of the neutron
the field of the e-: E31(-) = - E1 (r1/r3),
the field of the e+: E32 = E2 (r2/r3) = E1 (r2/r3)
and in addition the e+: E3 1 = E1 (r1/r3).
With the radius relation (eq. 7.4): r2 = 2*r1 und r3 = 3* r1
The total field is:
With zen = 4 elementary vortices
n0 is 12,5% bigger than p±
n0 is 5% heavier than p±
Fig. 7.11: Calculation of the mass of the neutron
proof 155
7.11 Calculation of the neutron
The calculation of the mass for the structure of the neutron according to fig. 7.10b has still
remained open.
Because in this book for the first time has been shown, how the mass can be calculated, if
the particles are understood as potential vortices, we also in this case again want to make
use of this possibility.
We have, like for the a structure of three shells with the radii r1, r2 and r3. At the outer
radius r3 the fields of the elementary vortices on the inside have an effect on the electron
On the outside: like is the case for the
the field of the e-: E31
(-) = -E1(r1/r3),
the field of the e+: E32 = E2 (r2/r3) = E1 (r2/r3)
and in addition the e+: E31 = E1 (r1/r3).
The total field is, with the radius relation equation 7.4:
If we compare the neutron, in which now ze = 4 elementary vortices are involved, with
the proton:
then we infer from the arithmetically determined result that the neutron according to the
radius is 12,5% bigger than the proton. The mass is calculated to:
The particle therefore has a mass which is 5% larger than for the proton, slightly more as
has been measured for the neutron. The difference is acceptable. The particle after all is
structured very asymmetrically, in which the reason is to be seen, why the uncharged
particle, looked at from close up, nevertheless shows an observable charge distribution.
156 beta-decay
Fig. 7.12: The electron-neutrino as a ring-like vortex
proof 157
In the case of the calculated quasistable particles, the and the n°, the verification by
means of the well-known decay processes is still due. Also free neutrons, those which are
not bound in an atomic nucleus, decay. But with an average life of 918 seconds they are
by far the longest living among the quasistable elementary particles.
Should the neutron decay be triggered by neutrinos, then obviously a distant flying past
does not suffice. For that the electron is bound in the proton too tight. There probably has
to occur a direct "crash", in which a neutrino is used, since the decay equation reads:
As could be expected a proton p+, an electron e- and the mentioned electron-antineutrino
are formed. What here is written down as the emission of an antiparticle, is equivalent
in the absorption of the particle, in this case of the neutrino. The reaction equation 7.15
can be reformulated accordingly:
Also for the decay of the myon an electron-neutrino is used. In both cases it provides the
energy necessary for the decay. But we can really understand the only, after we
have got to know these particles better.
Without charge and without mass neutrinos show hardly any interactions with matter and
as a consequence they possess the enormous ability of penetration - as is well-known.
They are said to participate in the ,,weak interaction", which should trigger a conversion of
the concerned particles, which is their decay. Pauli already has postulated the neutrino
1930 theoretically, because the transition from a half-integer spin to an integer spin for the
n0 -decay otherwise wouldn't have been explicable.
If we imagine an elementary vortex is being born, but the local field strength and energy
isn't sufficient for obtaining a quantized state. The result is an incomplete potential vortex,
which has an open vortex centre and as a consequence shows no localization at all. In the
form of a vortex ring it oscillates around itself, while it continually turns its inside to the
outside and then again to the inside.
One moment the vortex ring is green, then it is red again, one moment matter, then antimatter,
one moment positively charged and the next moment negatively charged. In
contrast to the photon the number of the involved elementary vortices ze for the neutrino is
odd (for the = 1). Perpendicular to the direction of propagation the neutrino has a spin
for reason of a rotation, which overlaps the pulsating oscillation.
This vortex ring is, as said, not a member of stationary matter, because it doesn't form a
"black hole" in its centre, where the speed of light becomes zero. But it has an absolute
stability like every elementary vortex, even if it only occurs incomplete and hence not in
any quantized form,. This concept of the electron-neutrino as an open oscillating
elementary vortex in the form of a ring-like vortex covers the experimentally determined
realizations unexpectedly well.
: Kussner, H.G.: Grundlagen einer einheitlichen Theorie der physikalischen
Teilchen und Felder, Musterschmidt, Gottingen 1976, S.155
158 "weak interaction"
A strong interaction doesn't exist. The electric field in
the proximity of the proton goes to zero within the range
which is determined with measuring techniques.
A weak interaction doesn't exist. That interaction only
is a special case of the electromagnetic interaction
which appears in a weakened form. ________________
XII: Why does the proton have approximately 3
times the magnetic moment which can be
expected for reason of the only single charge?
(3 elementary vortices)
XIII: Why does the neutron as an uncharged
particle anyway have a magnetic moment?
(Structure of the n°)
XIV: What owes the atomic nucleus, which consists
of like charges, its stability?
(Course of the field of the p+, instead of "strong interaction")
XV: Why does the free neutron decay, although it
is stable as a particle of the nucleus? _________
(Interaction with neutrinos)
XVI: Why do neutrinos nevertheless participate in
the "weak interaction", although they have no
mass and no charge? ________________________
(Oscillating charge)
XVII: How can be given reasons for the finite range
______of the "weak interaction"?
(Reaction cross-section for particle decay)
Fig. 7.13: Further key questions of quantum physics
(Continuation of figures 4.4 and 6.13)
proof 159
7.13 "Weak interaction"
Let's now look again at the -decay of the neutron, in which a neutrino is used. But this
by no means will be a process of the weak interaction. Instead will neutrinos, contrary to
the textbook opinion, participate in the electromagnetic interaction. They after all are one
moment positively charged and the next moment negatively charged. With slow-acting
gauges this it is true can't be proven, because the interaction is zero on the average. But
this charged oscillating vortex ring can exert a considerable effect while approaching a
neutron, which is based solely on the electromagnetic interaction.
The neutron is stimulated to synchronous oscillations of its own by the high-frequency
alternating field of the neutrino, until it in the case of the collision releases the bound
electron, which takes up the energy provided by the neutrino and transports it away. The
interaction obviously is only very weak due to the oscillation. But a physical
independency of it has to be disputed.
The finite range, which is given in this context, indicates the reaction cross-section around
the n°-particle, within which the "crash" and as a consequence the -decay occurs. This
range is considerable larger as the particle itself. The electromagnetic interaction for such
small distances after all is so violent, even if it only occurs in pulses, that the neutrino is
thrown out of its path and can fly directly towards the neutron.
Perhaps we now understand also the -decay of the myon. It actually were to be expected
that without outside disturbance an absolute stability could exist because of the ideal
symmetry of the On our planet we however are in every second bombarded with
approx. 66 milliard (billion) neutrinos per cm2 . Obviously it takes 2,2 on the average
till a neutrino flies past a myon so close that it decays. In doing so it stimulates the
outside elementary vortex to violent oscillations by trying to synchronize it. In this case
the electron-neutrino carries away with it the two outer, and therefore weaker bound,
elementary vortices of the myon, which meanwhile are oscillating synchronously. The
innermost vortex, an electron e-, is left behind. The decay of the myon which takes place
with a probability of almost 100 % reads:
Thus a different neutrino is formed which can be distinguished from the ve and is
called myon-neutrino since it forms from the Actually it even has a similar structure of
three shells, as is shown in fig. 7.5. But the vortex centre is open and the particle isn't
stationary anymore. In the picture now only a momentarily state is shown, in which the
appears green on the outside and red in its open centre. As already for the oscillates also
here the inside to the outside and vice versa, this time merely as a packet of three shells, so
that also this particle shows all the typical neutrino properties discussed for the example of
The for potential vortices typical and already discussed phenomenon of transport here has
an effect. In particular in connexion with vortex rings this property is known from
hydrodynamics. It thus can be observed, how vortex rings bind matter and carry away with
them. Because the neutrino is not quantized, it neither is restricted with regard to its ability
to transport elementary vortices. Consequently even bigger configurations are
conceivable, like configurations of 5 shells, 7 shells etc..
: "Zeugen aus der Sonne", VDI-Nachrichten Nr. 45 vom 9.11.90, Seite 26
160 tau particle
Fig. 7.14: Tau-neutrino and tau particle
7.14 Tau particle
In the table of the leptons after the e- and the as the next particle the tau particle is
found with its accompanying neutrino The obvious solution for the tau particle is the
structure of five shells, as is shown in fig. 7.14a. With that the electron would have
another particularly heavy relative with otherwise very similar properties.
For the myon the neutrino was stable, the particle itself however instable. We after all
huve explained the particle decay as a consequence of an outside disturbance, and
disturbances always are based on interactions. Correspondingly should, with the small
possibility for an interaction, also the neutrino of the tau particle have a better stability
than the particle itself.
Without doubt this structure of 5 shells fulfils all known quantum properties like spin,
charge etc. Merely the check of the mass is still due. This we now want to calculate for the
structure shown in fig. 7.14a.
But the for the tau particle measured value is considerable higher!
Even if this structure is the only possible in the case of the neutrino for reason of the
complete symmetry, will the tau particle however change its structure by itself if another
structure exists, which is more stable, thus in which the particle can take a bigger mass.
Such a maximum provides the structure shown in fig. 7.14b after checking all possible
configurations with five elementary vortices:
This value now lies 8% above the measurement values. It would be obvious, if unbound
tau particles predominantly would take the structure shown in fig. 7.14b. The remaining
error becomes explicable, if a very small number of tau particles in the lighter structure
according to fig. 7.14a are involved with a correspondingly smaller probability.
The enormous variety of kinds of decay, and not a single one of the dominating ones has a
probability of over 50%, makes it more difficult for us, to be able to directly infer the
inner structure of a particle from the decay products. It nevertheless should be mentioned
that after all 35% of all decays take place by taking up and using a neutrino or
entirely in accordance with the model of the myon decay (equation 7.16).
162 pions
7.15 Table of vortices of the calculated leptons and mesons
compared with measurement values (Part 1).
proof 163
7.l5 Pions
Unlike the leptons, which we could derive and calculate fairly completely, the mesons
don't have a half-integer spin. With this characteristic property they therefore can't
represent an individually overlapped elementary particle and they probably will consist of
the amassing in pairs of individual configurations of potential vortices. This kind of bond
can't be particularly tight. Consequently we don't know any stable mesons.
The most important basic building part of the mesons we have got to know over the
positronium in fig. 7.3. It necessarily has to amass to another particle, otherwise it
annihilates under emission of a -quanta, as already mentioned. This particle, as it will
be named here, has the mass of:
which only can be determined arithmetically. As a partner, to which the -particle can
amass, first of all another -particle should be considered. Because both partner will
rotate against one another, this new particle would not have a spin and moreover would be
uncharged. The mass now would be twice as big with:
But the two -particles will come very close together and mutually feel the local, in the
same direction orientated, distribution of the field, which will lead to a weakening of the
field and as a consequence to a slight reduction of the mass.
With these properties it probably concerns the uncharged pion This model concept
finds an excellent confirmation in the two possible kinds of decay, which can be regarded
as equivalent:
with a probability of 99%
with a probability of 1%
Also in the case of the charged pion the observable decay offers a big help, which will
take place with a frequency of almost 100 %:
The equation doesn't state anything about the fact, if a neutrino ve is used in the process.
But it points at the circumstance that the partner of the -particle for the most likely is
a myon The mass will be smaller than the sum of both building parts:
(204+136) * me = 340 * me.
164 table of vortices of the mesons
Some compound configurations
Fig. 7.16: Table of vortices of the calculated leptons and
mesons compared with measurement values (Part 2).
proof 165
7.16 Table of vortices of the mesons
The numerous kinds of decay for K-mesons suggest that these strange particles will
consist of various combinations of amassed together and in pairs rotating and
particles. The possibilities of combination now already have increased in such a way that
for every kaon and other mesons several solutions can be proposed. To avoid unfounded
speculations, only a few clues will be given.
Besides the -particles also heavier arrangements should be considered as partner for the
spin and as a building part for kaons and other mesons.
If for instance a is overlapped by a then this particle has an arithmetically
determined mass of 918 me. It therefore can concern a building part of the uncharged kaon
The likewise with three formed configuration of 6 shells however, if it actually would
staystable for the duration of a measurement, would have the mass of 3672 electron
A very much better detectability must be attributed to the configuration of 4 shells which
consists of two so to speak a heavy relative of the and the It among others should
be able to decay like a With this property and with an arithmetically determined mass
of 1088 me it actually only can concern the meson. Solely according to the numeric
value the -meson could also consist of four mesons; but the decay in only two light
quants speaks against it.
The kaon-puzzle in addition is made more difficult by the spontaneously possible ability
to change of the involved -particles during a process of decay, as is made clear by the
numerous kinds of decay. These dependent pion halves can be "swallowed" or "spit out"
by neutrinos in the process, they can form from incident light or be emitted as photons and
eventually they even can break up in their individual parts.
In fig. 7.16 the possible configurations of potential vortices are sketched and the
respective, according to the new theory calculated, mass is given. If above that the other
decay products and quantum properties, which can be given for the vortex structures, are
added, like e.g. charge, spin and if need be magnetic moment, then an assignment without
doubts to the until now only from measurements known elementary particles is possible.
In order to better be able to assess the efficiency of the potential vortex theory, the
measurement values are compared to the calculated values.
Some terms are put in brackets, because it can be assumed that the calculated part only
concerns the dominating part, to which further or other small configurations of vortices
will amass for reason of its high mass. Correspondingly should the mass in that case be
corrected slightly.
: It could e.g. concern the D°-meson.
166 table of vortices of the Baryons
Fig. 7.17: Table of vortices used for the calculation of the
important barvons with suggestions for the structure
(Part 3).
proof 167
7.17 Table of vortices of the baryons
The number of possibilities of combination quickly increases, if only a few elementary
vortices extend the structure of a particle. This probably is the reason for the large number
of observable hyperons, which recently have been produced artificially and observed with
the help of particle accelerators.
Both the neutron and the lambda particle can exist in a lighter and a heavier variant. At the
moment of the decay, as it for instance is observed in a bubble chamber, according to
expectation the state with the smaller mass takes the bigger probability. But in the
amassing with further particles as building part of bigger and heavier hyperons the heavier
structure is more likely. This circumstance should be considered in calculating the mass of
the hyperons.
In figures 7.17 and 7.18 the most important baryons are listed, which are characterised in
the way that one of the amassed together packets of vortices is a nucleon, thus a proton or
a neutron.
The given, from measurements known, kinds of decay are able to confirm the inner
structure pretty good. Of course an infinitely lot of combinations are conceivable and
numerous predictions are possible. But speculations are unnecessary from the time on
where we are able to calculate the particles!
The restriction to the few in the table listed particles seeming to be important hence
doesn't limit the universal importance of the theory of objectivity in any way!
168 unified theory
Fig. 7.18: Table of vortices used for the calculation of the
important baryons with suggestions for the structure
(Part 4).