With the theory of objectivity the longed for goal of a "theory of everything" (TOE), of an

universal theory, seems to have moved within reach. If in the nineteenth century still

promising field theories and approaches were being discussed, then has at the latest

Einstein's theory of relativity destroyed all hopes in such a theory. Science as a consequence

has become very much more modest and understands a TOE only as the

unification of all known interactions.

Einstein has stated the minimum demand so: "a theory should be favoured by far, in which

the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field together would appear as a whole"

*. It is evident that a subjective or relativistic observer theory never is able to achieve*

this.

The presented theory of objectivity made it possible that the unification here for the first

time actually has succeeded. This undoubtedly brings science a whole lot further, but it

still is not sufficient to lie one's hands in one's lap being content with oneself. After all we

still know very much more phenomena, which likewise should be unified. After all it is no

accident that both Maxwell and Einstein, to name only two prominent representatives,

after completion of their well-known works have struggled for the question, what sort of

phenomenon it concerns in the case of the temperature and how this could be integrated in

their theory.

The requirement reads: We must be able to derive all basic factors, which influence our

system of units with their basic units, as a compulsionless result from the new theory.

Besides the dimensions of space and time which determine our continuum, the explanation

and unification of the basic factors mass and charge has to be tackled. If we have

succeeded in doing so, we'll also tackle the problem of the fifth and last basic factor,

which until now has put itself in the way of any unified theory as the question of fate, the

problem of the temperature!

<

8.1 Structure of the field theory

In contrast to Maxwell's theory the new field theory, which we derived from duality, is

also able to describe fields, in which no particles and no quanta exist. It probably is

justified and useful in the sense of a clearer communication, to give the new field a name

of its own.

The author recommends the introduction of the term "hydrotic field". In it should be

expressed, which importance water has for both the like named potential vortex and this

field.

As we already have worked out, the hydrotic field is favoured particularly by polar

materials and by a high dielectricity. Water is a corresponding and in the biosphere of our

planet dominating material.

Whereas we had to correct the concept of a vortex free electric field, we had until now,

considerable, we can take over the description of the magnetic field unchanged. This then

should also be valid for its name. The new field which consists of both correspondingly is

called hydromagnetic field.

In fig. 8.1 we recognize the structure. At the top stands the "hydromagnetic field", which

is described mathematically by the equations of dual electrodynamics in fig. 3.3. It does

not know quanta and as logical consequence neither charge nor mass! If we insert these

equations, Ampere's law and the dual formulated Faraday law of induction, into each

other, then there results as a mathematical description of our space-time-continuum the

fundamental field equation (5.7, fig. 5.1). As a new physical phenomenon the potential

vortex appears, which gives the hydromagnetic field a new and important property: this

field can be quantized!

Starting-point is the wave, which for corresponding interference effects can spontaneously

roll up to a vortex, which as highly concentrated spherical vortex finds a new right to exist

and finds to a new physical reality.

The in the described manner formed particles show specific properties of their own. We

now are able to attribute them for instance a charge or a mass. And these properties also

can be investigated and described individually and isolated from each other. Thus are

formed the two special cases, strange by nature, on the one hand the well-known, with the

help of the Maxwell equations describable "electromagnetic field" and on the other hand

the new "hydrogravitational field".

If we overlap the results of the two special cases, e.g. by adding the force effects of

electric charges and accelerated masses, then we summarized obtain a field, which we

accordingly should call "electrogravitational". This case is not at all unknown. Already

Niels Bohr in this way has calculated the radii of the electron orbits in the hull of his

model of the atom, to mention only one example. We can summarize:

The hydromagnetic field is the all encompassing and with that most important field. Apart

from that the electromagnetic field of the currents and the eddy currents and the hydrogravitational

field of the potentials and the potential vortices merely describe the two

possible and important special cases. For reasons of pure usefulness for every special

case a characteristic factor of description is introduced, the charge and the mass!

8.2 Unification of the interactions

The discovery and introduction of the hydromagnetic field makes the desired unification

possible, because the electromagnetic resp. Maxwell field, which describes the electromagnetic

interaction, and the hydrogravitational field of the gravitation can be derived

from this field as a consequence of the formation of quanta.

The kind of the interaction is caused by the course of the field lines of the field quanta

which form as spherical vortices: the open field lines make the electromagnetic interaction

possible. And the field, lines with a closed course lead to gravitation. Both are a direct

result of the field dependent speed of light. A more perfect unification seems hardly

possible.

As the next step the unification with the strong and the weak interaction is required, but it

could be shown that those don't exist at all. It just concerns misinterpretations with much

fantasy, which should help explain the difference between a wrong theory and the physical

reality.

Numerous auxiliary terms for the description of the quantum properties exist, like for

instance mass, charge or Planck's quantum of action. The prerequisite for their usability

naturally is the existence of the quanta. But until these have found to a physical reality, the

auxiliary terms are unnecessary. The hydromagnetic field does not know quanta, quantum

properties or auxiliary descriptions. It will be shown that, according to expectation, also

the temperature is a typical quantum property, which comes within the group of the

auxiliary terms. In this way also the temperature is fitted into the unified theory without

compulsion.

Without the by us for reasons of usefulness introduced auxiliary terms the fundamental

field equation is left with its description of a spatial-temporal principle. If a world

equation should exist, then this field equation 5.7 has the best prerequisites.

For the fundamental field equation the division in four parts is repeated like already for the

hydromagnetic field (fig. 8.1). It likewise consists of four individual parts, the wave (b),

the two vortex phenomena (c and d) and the time independent term (e) (fig. 8.2). Whereas

the duality still is combined in the wave, it comes to light clearly for the vortices to again

be combined in the fourth case. Here arise however potentials and currents, which again

can react and oscillate with each other, for instance as L-C-resonant circuit in an electronic

circuit, with which the principle is repeated.

This principle is shown clearer for the phenomenon of the temperature as in all other

cases. If we start at the top in the picture in fig. 8.2 we have an electromagnetic wave,

which is absorbed and thus becomes a vortex. If the vortex falls apart, then eddy losses are

formed. We observe that the temperature rises and propagates in the well-known manner.

We have arrived in the bottom box, but this again can be taken as the top box for the now

following process, because the equation of heat conduction is a vortex equation of type c

or d! We discover a self-similarity:

8.3 Temperature

Following the atomic view, in the case of heat it concerns kinetic energy of the molecules,

which carry out more or less violent oscillations. In the case of gaseous materials with this

concept, basing on mechanical models, actually successful calculations are possible, like

for instance the speed distribution of gases won by Maxwell from theoretical considerations

concerning probability.

But the attempt to apply the formulas of the kinetic theory of gases to solids and liquids

only succeeds, if additional supplements and improvements are introduced. Since at all

events it concerns temperature, thus the same physical quantity, of course also an uniform

interpretation should be demanded, which in addition should stand in full accord to the

presented design of an integrated theory (TOE).

Against the background of the new theory of objectivity we consider, what happens, if for

instance the local field strength is increased by a flying past particle. The matter located at

this point is contracted for a short time. By coming closer to each other, the individual

elementary vortices mutually reinforce their field and are further compressed. Sometime

this process comes to a standstill, is reversed and swings back.

At the same time every single particle, which in this way carries out an oscillation of size,

has an effect on its neighbours with its field, to also stimulate these to the same oscillation,

but delayed by some time. This phenomenon spreads in all directions. The propagation

only will become stationary, if all neighbouring elementary vortices pulsate with the same

amplitude. It now should be recorded:

The oscillation of contraction of the elementary vortices we call temperature.

Also this thermodynamic state variable therefore is a result of the variable speed of light.

At the absolute zero of temperature no oscillation takes place anymore, whereas the upper

limit lies in infinity. Since the cause for temperature represents an oscillation of the local

electromagnetic field strength around the cosmic field strength, the following phenomena

must be considered as excitation and cause, as dictated by the fundamental field equation

5.7:

1. Electromagnetic waves (b) are able to stimulate matter particles to synchronous oscillations

of contraction by their alternating field. In doing so energy in form of heat is

transferred to the particles, with the result that their temperature is increased. The wave

is absorbed completely, if the thermal oscillation corresponds with the frequency of the

wave.

We speak of thermal radiation.

2. But also the two dual vortices, the eddy current (c) and the potential vortex (d) can

cause oscillations of contraction. This immediately becomes clear, if we consider a

vortex as the special case of the wave, in which the oscillation takes place around a

more or less stationary vortex centre. In the case of the decay of vortices, of the

transition of energy from vortices to matter, the increase in temperature is measurable.

In the case of this process of diffusion we speak of eddy losses and of loss heat.

Answers to open questions of thermodynamics:

1. Temperature occurs independent of the state in which the

matter is (unified theory).

2.Temperature even occurs in solids, where a purely kinetic

interpretation fails (unification).

3. Each elementary particle is carrier of a temperature.

4. Expansion with increasing temperature because of the

increasing need for room for larger amplitude of oscillation

(principle: bi-metal-thermometer).

5. For solids the thermal oscillation of size is primarily passed on

by the electrons in the atomic hull. Good electric conductors

therefore at the same time also have a high thermal conductivity.

(principle: electrical resistance thermometer).

6. For gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason

a kinetic auxiliary description becomes applicable.

7. For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely

lose their enveloping electrons, when they change into the

plasma state.

8.The second law of thermodynamics loses its claim to be

absolute and at best reads: with today's technology we are not

capable, to design a cyclic working machine, which does

nothing else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to

convert it into mechanical work.

3. Flying past particles, in particular unbound and free movable charge carriers (e)

produce an alternating field for other fixed particles. Doing so kinetic energy can be

transformed in temperature, thus in energy of pulsation. A good example is the inelastic

collision. But it can also be pointed to numerous chemical reactions. Whoever searches

for a concrete example, takes two objects in his hands and rubs them against one

another. In that case the particles which are at the frictional surfaces are being moved

past each other in very small distance, in this way causing oscillations of pulsation,

which propagate into the inside of the objects according to the thermal conductivity. We

speak of friction heat.

This model concept provides sound explanations for a whole number of open questions

(fig. 8.4), i.e. why the temperature occurs independent of the state (1) and even in solids,

where a purely kinetic interpretation fails (2). Every single elementary particle after all is

carrier of a temperature (3).

With increasing temperature most materials expand, because the need for room, purely

geometrically seen, increases for larger amplitude of oscillation (4). This principle is used

in the case of a bi-metal thermometer.

In the case of solids the thermal oscillation of size is passed on primarily by the electrons

in the atomic hull (5). Good electric conductors therefore at the same time also have a high

thermal conductivity. An example of an application is the electric resistance thermometer.

In the case of gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason a kinetic theory

becomes applicable as an auxiliary description (6).

For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely lose their enveloping

electrons, when they change into the plasma state (7).

Finally the model concept even limits the second law of thermodynamics, which contains

the postulate that it is impossible to design a cyclic working machine, which does nothing

else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to convert it into mechanical work (8).

8.4 Heat energy

The discussed oscillation of contraction shows two characteristic properties, which must

be looked at separately: the amplitude and the frequency.___________________________

Temperature describes solely the amplitude of the oscillation of size.

The heat energy however is determined by both,

by the amplitude as well as by the frequency.

Consequently the ideas of temperature and heat energy should be kept strictly apart. It

therefore isn't allowed to set this oscillation equal to the electromagnetic wave in tables of

frequency.

To be correct two tables should be given, one for the wave, characterized by a propagation

with the speed of light, and another one for oscillations of contraction, thus for stationary

phenomena and phenomena bound to matter. The latter indeed can likewise propagate

relatively fast by fluctuations of pressure in the case of acoustical sound frequencies or by

free movable charge carriers in the case of heat conduction, but the velocity of

propagation for sound or heat is as is well-known still considerably smaller than the speed

of light. Thus an assignment without doubts can be made as to which kind of oscillation it

concerns.

8.5 Sound

The close relationship of longitudinal sound waves with the oscillations of contraction of

thermally heated matter becomes particularly clear for ultrasound, where the arising heat

in the inside of the body which is exposed to sound can be measured directly. The fundamental

difference consists of the fact that the produced sound waves not only have the

same frequency, but also the same phase, what needs not be the case for the temperature.

The apparently uncoordinated occurring oscillations of size of the temperature, which as a

rule occupy more space if the intensity increases, form a "thermal noise".

The oscillation of size with the same phase is not realizable at all in a spatial formation of

particles, with one exception, the case that all particles expand and afterwards again

contract simultaneously and in the same time. We can observe such a synchronization of

the pulsation oscillations of all elementary vortices in the case of a pulsar. For us a pulsar

looks like a "lighthouse" in space which shines with a fixed frequency.

In reality it as well can concern a constantly shining sun, which carries out a synchronized,

thermal oscillation of size, like a gigantic low-frequency loudspeaker. During the phase of

contraction of the star its emitted light stays back. To us the pulsar looks dark. In addition

the field strength is extremely increased and the light becomes correspondingly slow.

During the phase of expansion the conditions are reversed and we observe a light flash.

Exactly the pulsar unambiguously confirms the here presented theory of the variable, field

dependent speed of light.

The well-known fact that the microcosm represents a copy of the macrocosm, already

suggests that each atom is capable of the same oscillation of size as a pulsar: if next to the

oscillating atom a resting one is placed, then does this one see a smaller field during the

phase of contraction because of the increasing distance. It hence becomes bigger itself. If

the pulsating neighbouring atom afterwards expands, it however becomes smaller. The at

first resting atom in this way becomes a "pulsar" oscillating with opposite phase.

The oscillating atom has stimulated the neighbouring atom as well to an oscillation of size,

and this process will be repeated with the closest neighbouring atom. We speak of heat

conduction.

To which extent the average distance between neighbouring atoms is influenced while a

material is heated, solely depends on the structure of the atomic lattice. For matter with a

fixed lattice according to expectation a smaller heat expansion will occur, as for the

unordered structure of gases, in which we find confirmed well-known relations.

In a for potential vortices characteristic property sound waves and thermal waves of

contraction correspond:

8.6 Basic principle of cybernetics

Surely can be attributed also information to the potential vortex. But how should information

be formed? Is information a form of energy? Energy occurs as a consequence of

the formation of potential vortices. Without this phenomenon there wouldn't be any

energy!

Can information be described by means of a mathematical equation?

To be able to answer these questions, we subject the fundamental field equation to a

control technical analysis. If it actually concerns a world equation, then an answers should

be possible.

We again take up Ampere's law 5.1* from fig. 5.1 and remodel it according to the time

derivative (5.1**). If the equation now is integrated over the time (5.1***), a signal flow

diagram can be drawn (fig. 8.6).

The structure of a regulatory circuit is clearly visible. The individual paragraphs are

described in an analogous way as for a technical control system. The execution of the curl

operation on the field pointer of the magnetic field strength H and the multiplication with

accordingly form an adaptation of driving factors. In the comparator the difference for

control from driving factor w and controlling factor x is formed and supplied to an

integral controller. The control path has a purely proportional behaviour and consists of

the processing of the measurement value of the electric field strength E with in which

describes the relaxation time of the eddy currents.

In technical control systems such a structure is found remarkably seldom, although it has

an invaluable advantage: it possesses a stability in principle. Not a single adjustment of

the controller exists, in which the closed regulatory circuit could become unstable,

because it shows a proportionally delaying behaviour of first order. Possible changes of

the adjustment of the controller or of the control path merely take effect on the speed, with

which the regulatory circuit is able to follow changes of the driving factor.

This control technical basic principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. It meets

us again in identical form in the second field equation 5.4*, the extended Faraday's law of

induction. In dual formulation the electric field strength now appears as input factor and

the magnetic field strength as output factor. Both regulatory circuits are coupled and

connected with each other, by deriving their driving factor each time from the controlling

factor of their dual partner. Is this structure actually efficient and meaningful?

Every regulatory circuit needs a target value, which is dictated from the outside. Let us

think of the numerous control systems in nature. At all events a higher intelligence would

be necessary for all the target values. This problematic is comparable to the question, what

existed first: the egg from which a hen hatches or the hen without which no eggs can exist.

Without a given target, evolution would not exist.

The connected regulatory circuit structure provides the matching answer: cybernetic

systems, which usually and as is well-known strive to a state of balance, get their target

value from their dual "partner". It is crucial that correspondingly dual systems are selfsufficient

and can form and develop independently out of themselves without target values

of a third side. This basic principle of cybernetics undoubtedly is brilliant.

8.7 Adaptive regulatory circuit structure

If out of the nowhere something like the cosmos or like life on earth should form, then the

connected regulatory circuit structure basing on duality probably is the only possible and

conceivable. Thus it merely concerns the control technical representation of the fundamental

field equation.

The question for the efficiency not only concerns the stability, but equally the possibility

of both systems, to oscillate and to communicate with each other by the coupling and the

associated exchange of information.

Fig. 8.7 shows the signal flow diagram of both regulatory circuits. These are switched in

line and form a coupled circuit, which itself can be interpreted as a third regulatory circuit.

Also this one shows a change of sign in the circuit like the other two circuits.

The information technical interpretation could turn out as follows: information about a

regulatory process in the lower regulatory circuit F11 caused for instance by a disturbance

is communicated over the coupled circuit to the upper regulatory circuit FJ2. In this case

F11 acts as transmitter and F12 as receiver of the information. Afterwards both exchange

their places, because F12 for its part reacts by a regulatory process and reports to F11. The

regulatory circuits adapt to each other. Obviously it concerns the basic structure of an

adaptive regulatory circuit.

To analyse the coupled circuit the examination of individual special cases is

recommended. If the regulatory circuits F11 and F12 are opened up in the way that the time

constants tau1 and tau2 go towards infinity, then the double integral effect is left. Analyses of

technical regulatory circuit teach us that such systems always tend to instability. Because

in addition the target value is zero, an oscillation around zero will arise, which we call

electromagnetic wave.

If one of both time constants becomes finite, e.g. then damping of the waves will occur.

The "subordinate" cascade regulatory circuit F12 will adjust itself and now has a proportional

delaying behaviour of first order. Together with the integral controller of the open

F11- circuit the coupled circuit will show the typical and more or less optimal regulatory

behaviour of a damped oscillation.

These special cases correspond with the mathematical (fig. 5.2) and the physical (fig. 5.3)

interpretation of the fundamental field equation. In addition a spatial rotation, a swirling

will occur because of the double execution of the curl operation.

If interpreted control technically then vortices are the temporally stable, spatial swing of a

field pointer around a centre, the vortex centre.

Without potential vortices no stability, no matter, no energy nor information would exist!

As can be looked up in Goethe's Faust, it always has been a desire of humanity, to find

out, "what keeps the world together in the heart of hearts".

8.8 Information

The search for an answer for numerous philosophers and physicists was tantamount to the

search for a world formula. Of course mustn't be forgotten that a formula only is a

mathematical description and never the physical reality itself. It is a mathematical tool in

the hand of a person and not the world or the cosmos itself, which he tries to understand.

What keeps the world together in the heart of hearts, has to be more than only a pure

apparatus of formulas. Actually the fundamental field equation tells us more. It reveals us

a basic principle basing on duality in which the dual partners mutually dictate target

values and goals. This principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. Apart from the

"self regulation" it obviously also has the fundamental possibility of a "self

organization" and the "generation of information". The field equations of the

hydromagnetic field thus are the starting-point for the formation not only of matter and

energy, but also of information. Accordingly holds:

Information is nothing but a structure of electromagnetic vortex fields!

This statement is new and to a large extent incompatible with the conception world of

Norbert Wiener, who goes as the founder of cybernetics. From N. Wiener stems the

sentence: "information is information, not matter and not energy".

We hold against it that obviously a fairly direct connection exists. We have worked out

that only the vortex can show a stable adaptive regulatory circuit structure. Only the

vortex and not the wave exists in two forms of formation dual to each other, and the

principle of duality again is the prerequisite for the formation of information, of self

organization and finally for the evolution. In fig. 8.8 well-known dual partnerships are

listed. From it follows in a consistent way that for the production of information without

exception the electromagnetic vortices should be considered.

But how can this so important duality occur, how can it form? This question is closely

associated with the question of the formation of vortices. The signal flow diagram (fig.

8.7) to that says that the dual regulatory circuits F1 and F2 can only exist by the coupled

circuit, which provides them the necessary target values and at the same time forwards the

respective information. In this way of the oscillations and the more or less damped wave

F1 and F2 communicate with each other.

The electromagnetic wave serves solely the

mediation of information and energy.

With that falls a central role upon the wave, so that vice versa is valid:

Without wave no vortices, no duality and

consequently no evolution can exist.

According to the to date state of knowledge the basic principle of cybernetics forms the

basis for matter and energy as well as for information. Since the wave can only serve the

transmission of information, the principle of duality and the vortex will function as

carriers of information. We are entitled, to speak of vortex information, this by no means

is characterized by special frequencies or modulations of frequencies. This is prevented by

the property of the vortices which allows them to change the frequency. On the other hand

various configurations of vortices are possible and numerous combinations and modulations

are conceivable.

If technical apparatus generate vortices, then they produce information. Here a serious

danger with regard to the environmental compatibility can not be excluded!

8.9 Philosophy of nature

Seen in the view of the philosophy of nature now two dual points of view are possible.

The optimistic one would be:

We and our environment on the one hand are a result of the cybernetic principle and on

the other hand of our observation point of view which should be valued relativistically.

If really everything should be electromagnetism, a phenomenon which can't be grasped

directly by humans, then the pessimist would come to the conclusion: everythins is

nothing. What we observe is nothins but a deception of the senses. Perhaps therefore

famous philosophers of antiquity, like Empedokles or Demokritos have ended their life in

the crater of the Etna. According to the theory of the atom of Demokritos (470 to 380

B.C.) the formation of matter, earth and celestial bodies will occur by means of formation

of vortices!

Empedokles (482 to 420 B.C.) was the first to develop a theory basing on four elements,

which was continued and improved by Plato (428 to 348 B.C.) and Aristotle (384 to 322

B.C.). Accordingly these elements are changeable into each other and mixable with each

other. From them all bodies are build up.

The terms "air, water, fire and earth", with which the philosophers have described the four

elements, are of course not identical with the ones in our translation and conception world,

but they were used in a philosophical sense as a substitute for the description of the

respective basic principle.

There also have been different approaches, to translate these terms differently, e.g. by an

assignment to the four states of matter (solid, liquid, gaseous, plasma). But the ancient

texts don't get easier to read in that way.

Fig. 8.9 shows the obvious assignment to the four building parts of the fundamental field

equation 5.7. It would be worth an attempt, to exchange the terms in the translations of

ancient texts and to translate air with wave, water with potential vortex and fire with eddy

current. The term earth has two sides, which should be translated with potential instead of

wood and current instead of metal.

Let's try the translation this way with the theory of Plato

this.

The presented theory of objectivity made it possible that the unification here for the first

time actually has succeeded. This undoubtedly brings science a whole lot further, but it

still is not sufficient to lie one's hands in one's lap being content with oneself. After all we

still know very much more phenomena, which likewise should be unified. After all it is no

accident that both Maxwell and Einstein, to name only two prominent representatives,

after completion of their well-known works have struggled for the question, what sort of

phenomenon it concerns in the case of the temperature and how this could be integrated in

their theory.

The requirement reads: We must be able to derive all basic factors, which influence our

system of units with their basic units, as a compulsionless result from the new theory.

Besides the dimensions of space and time which determine our continuum, the explanation

and unification of the basic factors mass and charge has to be tackled. If we have

succeeded in doing so, we'll also tackle the problem of the fifth and last basic factor,

which until now has put itself in the way of any unified theory as the question of fate, the

problem of the temperature!

<

8.1 Structure of the field theory

In contrast to Maxwell's theory the new field theory, which we derived from duality, is

also able to describe fields, in which no particles and no quanta exist. It probably is

justified and useful in the sense of a clearer communication, to give the new field a name

of its own.

The author recommends the introduction of the term "hydrotic field". In it should be

expressed, which importance water has for both the like named potential vortex and this

field

As we already have worked out, the hydrotic field is favoured particularly by polar

materials and by a high dielectricity. Water is a corresponding and in the biosphere of our

planet dominating material.

Whereas we had to correct the concept of a vortex free electric field, we had until now,

considerable, we can take over the description of the magnetic field unchanged. This then

should also be valid for its name. The new field which consists of both correspondingly is

called hydromagnetic field.

In fig. 8.1 we recognize the structure. At the top stands the "hydromagnetic field", which

is described mathematically by the equations of dual electrodynamics in fig. 3.3. It does

not know quanta and as logical consequence neither charge nor mass! If we insert these

equations, Ampere's law and the dual formulated Faraday law of induction, into each

other, then there results as a mathematical description of our space-time-continuum the

fundamental field equation (5.7, fig. 5.1). As a new physical phenomenon the potential

vortex appears, which gives the hydromagnetic field a new and important property: this

field can be quantized!

Starting-point is the wave, which for corresponding interference effects can spontaneously

roll up to a vortex, which as highly concentrated spherical vortex finds a new right to exist

and finds to a new physical reality.

The in the described manner formed particles show specific properties of their own. We

now are able to attribute them for instance a charge or a mass. And these properties also

can be investigated and described individually and isolated from each other. Thus are

formed the two special cases, strange by nature, on the one hand the well-known, with the

help of the Maxwell equations describable "electromagnetic field" and on the other hand

the new "hydrogravitational field".

If we overlap the results of the two special cases, e.g. by adding the force effects of

electric charges and accelerated masses, then we summarized obtain a field, which we

accordingly should call "electrogravitational". This case is not at all unknown. Already

Niels Bohr in this way has calculated the radii of the electron orbits in the hull of his

model of the atom, to mention only one example. We can summarize:

The hydromagnetic field is the all encompassing and with that most important field. Apart

from that the electromagnetic field of the currents and the eddy currents and the hydrogravitational

field of the potentials and the potential vortices merely describe the two

possible and important special cases. For reasons of pure usefulness for every special

case a characteristic factor of description is introduced, the charge and the mass!

8.2 Unification of the interactions

The discovery and introduction of the hydromagnetic field makes the desired unification

possible, because the electromagnetic resp. Maxwell field, which describes the electromagnetic

interaction, and the hydrogravitational field of the gravitation can be derived

from this field as a consequence of the formation of quanta.

The kind of the interaction is caused by the course of the field lines of the field quanta

which form as spherical vortices: the open field lines make the electromagnetic interaction

possible. And the field, lines with a closed course lead to gravitation. Both are a direct

result of the field dependent speed of light. A more perfect unification seems hardly

possible.

As the next step the unification with the strong and the weak interaction is required, but it

could be shown that those don't exist at all. It just concerns misinterpretations with much

fantasy, which should help explain the difference between a wrong theory and the physical

reality.

Numerous auxiliary terms for the description of the quantum properties exist, like for

instance mass, charge or Planck's quantum of action. The prerequisite for their usability

naturally is the existence of the quanta. But until these have found to a physical reality, the

auxiliary terms are unnecessary. The hydromagnetic field does not know quanta, quantum

properties or auxiliary descriptions. It will be shown that, according to expectation, also

the temperature is a typical quantum property, which comes within the group of the

auxiliary terms. In this way also the temperature is fitted into the unified theory without

compulsion.

Without the by us for reasons of usefulness introduced auxiliary terms the fundamental

field equation is left with its description of a spatial-temporal principle. If a world

equation should exist, then this field equation 5.7 has the best prerequisites.

For the fundamental field equation the division in four parts is repeated like already for the

hydromagnetic field (fig. 8.1). It likewise consists of four individual parts, the wave (b),

the two vortex phenomena (c and d) and the time independent term (e) (fig. 8.2). Whereas

the duality still is combined in the wave, it comes to light clearly for the vortices to again

be combined in the fourth case. Here arise however potentials and currents, which again

can react and oscillate with each other, for instance as L-C-resonant circuit in an electronic

circuit, with which the principle is repeated.

This principle is shown clearer for the phenomenon of the temperature as in all other

cases. If we start at the top in the picture in fig. 8.2 we have an electromagnetic wave,

which is absorbed and thus becomes a vortex. If the vortex falls apart, then eddy losses are

formed. We observe that the temperature rises and propagates in the well-known manner.

We have arrived in the bottom box, but this again can be taken as the top box for the now

following process, because the equation of heat conduction is a vortex equation of type c

or d! We discover a self-similarity:

8.3 Temperature

Following the atomic view, in the case of heat it concerns kinetic energy of the molecules,

which carry out more or less violent oscillations. In the case of gaseous materials with this

concept, basing on mechanical models, actually successful calculations are possible, like

for instance the speed distribution of gases won by Maxwell from theoretical considerations

concerning probability.

But the attempt to apply the formulas of the kinetic theory of gases to solids and liquids

only succeeds, if additional supplements and improvements are introduced. Since at all

events it concerns temperature, thus the same physical quantity, of course also an uniform

interpretation should be demanded, which in addition should stand in full accord to the

presented design of an integrated theory (TOE).

Against the background of the new theory of objectivity we consider, what happens, if for

instance the local field strength is increased by a flying past particle. The matter located at

this point is contracted for a short time. By coming closer to each other, the individual

elementary vortices mutually reinforce their field and are further compressed. Sometime

this process comes to a standstill, is reversed and swings back.

At the same time every single particle, which in this way carries out an oscillation of size,

has an effect on its neighbours with its field, to also stimulate these to the same oscillation,

but delayed by some time. This phenomenon spreads in all directions. The propagation

only will become stationary, if all neighbouring elementary vortices pulsate with the same

amplitude. It now should be recorded:

The oscillation of contraction of the elementary vortices we call temperature.

Also this thermodynamic state variable therefore is a result of the variable speed of light.

At the absolute zero of temperature no oscillation takes place anymore, whereas the upper

limit lies in infinity. Since the cause for temperature represents an oscillation of the local

electromagnetic field strength around the cosmic field strength, the following phenomena

must be considered as excitation and cause, as dictated by the fundamental field equation

5.7:

1. Electromagnetic waves (b) are able to stimulate matter particles to synchronous oscillations

of contraction by their alternating field. In doing so energy in form of heat is

transferred to the particles, with the result that their temperature is increased. The wave

is absorbed completely, if the thermal oscillation corresponds with the frequency of the

wave.

We speak of thermal radiation.

2. But also the two dual vortices, the eddy current (c) and the potential vortex (d) can

cause oscillations of contraction. This immediately becomes clear, if we consider a

vortex as the special case of the wave, in which the oscillation takes place around a

more or less stationary vortex centre. In the case of the decay of vortices, of the

transition of energy from vortices to matter, the increase in temperature is measurable.

In the case of this process of diffusion we speak of eddy losses and of loss heat.

Answers to open questions of thermodynamics:

1. Temperature occurs independent of the state in which the

matter is (unified theory).

2.Temperature even occurs in solids, where a purely kinetic

interpretation fails (unification).

3. Each elementary particle is carrier of a temperature.

4. Expansion with increasing temperature because of the

increasing need for room for larger amplitude of oscillation

(principle: bi-metal-thermometer).

5. For solids the thermal oscillation of size is primarily passed on

by the electrons in the atomic hull. Good electric conductors

therefore at the same time also have a high thermal conductivity.

(principle: electrical resistance thermometer).

6. For gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason

a kinetic auxiliary description becomes applicable.

7. For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely

lose their enveloping electrons, when they change into the

plasma state.

8.The second law of thermodynamics loses its claim to be

absolute and at best reads: with today's technology we are not

capable, to design a cyclic working machine, which does

nothing else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to

convert it into mechanical work.

3. Flying past particles, in particular unbound and free movable charge carriers (e)

produce an alternating field for other fixed particles. Doing so kinetic energy can be

transformed in temperature, thus in energy of pulsation. A good example is the inelastic

collision. But it can also be pointed to numerous chemical reactions. Whoever searches

for a concrete example, takes two objects in his hands and rubs them against one

another. In that case the particles which are at the frictional surfaces are being moved

past each other in very small distance, in this way causing oscillations of pulsation,

which propagate into the inside of the objects according to the thermal conductivity. We

speak of friction heat.

This model concept provides sound explanations for a whole number of open questions

(fig. 8.4), i.e. why the temperature occurs independent of the state (1) and even in solids,

where a purely kinetic interpretation fails (2). Every single elementary particle after all is

carrier of a temperature (3).

With increasing temperature most materials expand, because the need for room, purely

geometrically seen, increases for larger amplitude of oscillation (4). This principle is used

in the case of a bi-metal thermometer.

In the case of solids the thermal oscillation of size is passed on primarily by the electrons

in the atomic hull (5). Good electric conductors therefore at the same time also have a high

thermal conductivity. An example of an application is the electric resistance thermometer.

In the case of gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason a kinetic theory

becomes applicable as an auxiliary description (6).

For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely lose their enveloping

electrons, when they change into the plasma state (7).

Finally the model concept even limits the second law of thermodynamics, which contains

the postulate that it is impossible to design a cyclic working machine, which does nothing

else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to convert it into mechanical work (8).

8.4 Heat energy

The discussed oscillation of contraction shows two characteristic properties, which must

be looked at separately: the amplitude and the frequency.___________________________

Temperature describes solely the amplitude of the oscillation of size.

The heat energy however is determined by both,

by the amplitude as well as by the frequency.

Consequently the ideas of temperature and heat energy should be kept strictly apart. It

therefore isn't allowed to set this oscillation equal to the electromagnetic wave in tables of

frequency.

To be correct two tables should be given, one for the wave, characterized by a propagation

with the speed of light, and another one for oscillations of contraction, thus for stationary

phenomena and phenomena bound to matter. The latter indeed can likewise propagate

relatively fast by fluctuations of pressure in the case of acoustical sound frequencies or by

free movable charge carriers in the case of heat conduction, but the velocity of

propagation for sound or heat is as is well-known still considerably smaller than the speed

of light. Thus an assignment without doubts can be made as to which kind of oscillation it

concerns.

8.5 Sound

The close relationship of longitudinal sound waves with the oscillations of contraction of

thermally heated matter becomes particularly clear for ultrasound, where the arising heat

in the inside of the body which is exposed to sound can be measured directly. The fundamental

difference consists of the fact that the produced sound waves not only have the

same frequency, but also the same phase, what needs not be the case for the temperature.

The apparently uncoordinated occurring oscillations of size of the temperature, which as a

rule occupy more space if the intensity increases, form a "thermal noise".

The oscillation of size with the same phase is not realizable at all in a spatial formation of

particles, with one exception, the case that all particles expand and afterwards again

contract simultaneously and in the same time. We can observe such a synchronization of

the pulsation oscillations of all elementary vortices in the case of a pulsar. For us a pulsar

looks like a "lighthouse" in space which shines with a fixed frequency.

In reality it as well can concern a constantly shining sun, which carries out a synchronized,

thermal oscillation of size, like a gigantic low-frequency loudspeaker. During the phase of

contraction of the star its emitted light stays back. To us the pulsar looks dark. In addition

the field strength is extremely increased and the light becomes correspondingly slow.

During the phase of expansion the conditions are reversed and we observe a light flash.

Exactly the pulsar unambiguously confirms the here presented theory of the variable, field

dependent speed of light.

The well-known fact that the microcosm represents a copy of the macrocosm, already

suggests that each atom is capable of the same oscillation of size as a pulsar: if next to the

oscillating atom a resting one is placed, then does this one see a smaller field during the

phase of contraction because of the increasing distance. It hence becomes bigger itself. If

the pulsating neighbouring atom afterwards expands, it however becomes smaller. The at

first resting atom in this way becomes a "pulsar" oscillating with opposite phase.

The oscillating atom has stimulated the neighbouring atom as well to an oscillation of size,

and this process will be repeated with the closest neighbouring atom. We speak of heat

conduction.

To which extent the average distance between neighbouring atoms is influenced while a

material is heated, solely depends on the structure of the atomic lattice. For matter with a

fixed lattice according to expectation a smaller heat expansion will occur, as for the

unordered structure of gases, in which we find confirmed well-known relations.

In a for potential vortices characteristic property sound waves and thermal waves of

contraction correspond:

8.6 Basic principle of cybernetics

Surely can be attributed also information to the potential vortex. But how should information

be formed? Is information a form of energy? Energy occurs as a consequence of

the formation of potential vortices. Without this phenomenon there wouldn't be any

energy!

Can information be described by means of a mathematical equation?

To be able to answer these questions, we subject the fundamental field equation to a

control technical analysis. If it actually concerns a world equation, then an answers should

be possible.

We again take up Ampere's law 5.1* from fig. 5.1 and remodel it according to the time

derivative (5.1**). If the equation now is integrated over the time (5.1***), a signal flow

diagram can be drawn (fig. 8.6).

The structure of a regulatory circuit is clearly visible. The individual paragraphs are

described in an analogous way as for a technical control system. The execution of the curl

operation on the field pointer of the magnetic field strength H and the multiplication with

accordingly form an adaptation of driving factors. In the comparator the difference for

control from driving factor w and controlling factor x is formed and supplied to an

integral controller. The control path has a purely proportional behaviour and consists of

the processing of the measurement value of the electric field strength E with in which

describes the relaxation time of the eddy currents.

In technical control systems such a structure is found remarkably seldom, although it has

an invaluable advantage: it possesses a stability in principle. Not a single adjustment of

the controller exists, in which the closed regulatory circuit could become unstable,

because it shows a proportionally delaying behaviour of first order. Possible changes of

the adjustment of the controller or of the control path merely take effect on the speed, with

which the regulatory circuit is able to follow changes of the driving factor.

This control technical basic principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. It meets

us again in identical form in the second field equation 5.4*, the extended Faraday's law of

induction. In dual formulation the electric field strength now appears as input factor and

the magnetic field strength as output factor. Both regulatory circuits are coupled and

connected with each other, by deriving their driving factor each time from the controlling

factor of their dual partner. Is this structure actually efficient and meaningful?

Every regulatory circuit needs a target value, which is dictated from the outside. Let us

think of the numerous control systems in nature. At all events a higher intelligence would

be necessary for all the target values. This problematic is comparable to the question, what

existed first: the egg from which a hen hatches or the hen without which no eggs can exist.

Without a given target, evolution would not exist.

The connected regulatory circuit structure provides the matching answer: cybernetic

systems, which usually and as is well-known strive to a state of balance, get their target

value from their dual "partner". It is crucial that correspondingly dual systems are selfsufficient

and can form and develop independently out of themselves without target values

of a third side. This basic principle of cybernetics undoubtedly is brilliant.

8.7 Adaptive regulatory circuit structure

If out of the nowhere something like the cosmos or like life on earth should form, then the

connected regulatory circuit structure basing on duality probably is the only possible and

conceivable. Thus it merely concerns the control technical representation of the fundamental

field equation.

The question for the efficiency not only concerns the stability, but equally the possibility

of both systems, to oscillate and to communicate with each other by the coupling and the

associated exchange of information.

Fig. 8.7 shows the signal flow diagram of both regulatory circuits. These are switched in

line and form a coupled circuit, which itself can be interpreted as a third regulatory circuit.

Also this one shows a change of sign in the circuit like the other two circuits.

The information technical interpretation could turn out as follows: information about a

regulatory process in the lower regulatory circuit F11 caused for instance by a disturbance

is communicated over the coupled circuit to the upper regulatory circuit FJ2. In this case

F11 acts as transmitter and F12 as receiver of the information. Afterwards both exchange

their places, because F12 for its part reacts by a regulatory process and reports to F11. The

regulatory circuits adapt to each other. Obviously it concerns the basic structure of an

adaptive regulatory circuit.

To analyse the coupled circuit the examination of individual special cases is

recommended. If the regulatory circuits F11 and F12 are opened up in the way that the time

constants tau1 and tau2 go towards infinity, then the double integral effect is left. Analyses of

technical regulatory circuit teach us that such systems always tend to instability. Because

in addition the target value is zero, an oscillation around zero will arise, which we call

electromagnetic wave.

If one of both time constants becomes finite, e.g. then damping of the waves will occur.

The "subordinate" cascade regulatory circuit F12 will adjust itself and now has a proportional

delaying behaviour of first order. Together with the integral controller of the open

F11- circuit the coupled circuit will show the typical and more or less optimal regulatory

behaviour of a damped oscillation.

These special cases correspond with the mathematical (fig. 5.2) and the physical (fig. 5.3)

interpretation of the fundamental field equation. In addition a spatial rotation, a swirling

will occur because of the double execution of the curl operation.

If interpreted control technically then vortices are the temporally stable, spatial swing of a

field pointer around a centre, the vortex centre.

Without potential vortices no stability, no matter, no energy nor information would exist!

As can be looked up in Goethe's Faust, it always has been a desire of humanity, to find

out, "what keeps the world together in the heart of hearts".

8.8 Information

The search for an answer for numerous philosophers and physicists was tantamount to the

search for a world formula. Of course mustn't be forgotten that a formula only is a

mathematical description and never the physical reality itself. It is a mathematical tool in

the hand of a person and not the world or the cosmos itself, which he tries to understand.

What keeps the world together in the heart of hearts, has to be more than only a pure

apparatus of formulas. Actually the fundamental field equation tells us more. It reveals us

a basic principle basing on duality in which the dual partners mutually dictate target

values and goals. This principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. Apart from the

"self regulation" it obviously also has the fundamental possibility of a "self

organization" and the "generation of information". The field equations of the

hydromagnetic field thus are the starting-point for the formation not only of matter and

energy, but also of information. Accordingly holds:

Information is nothing but a structure of electromagnetic vortex fields!

This statement is new and to a large extent incompatible with the conception world of

Norbert Wiener, who goes as the founder of cybernetics. From N. Wiener stems the

sentence: "information is information, not matter and not energy".

We hold against it that obviously a fairly direct connection exists. We have worked out

that only the vortex can show a stable adaptive regulatory circuit structure. Only the

vortex and not the wave exists in two forms of formation dual to each other, and the

principle of duality again is the prerequisite for the formation of information, of self

organization and finally for the evolution. In fig. 8.8 well-known dual partnerships are

listed. From it follows in a consistent way that for the production of information without

exception the electromagnetic vortices should be considered.

But how can this so important duality occur, how can it form? This question is closely

associated with the question of the formation of vortices. The signal flow diagram (fig.

8.7) to that says that the dual regulatory circuits F1 and F2 can only exist by the coupled

circuit, which provides them the necessary target values and at the same time forwards the

respective information. In this way of the oscillations and the more or less damped wave

F1 and F2 communicate with each other.

The electromagnetic wave serves solely the

mediation of information and energy.

With that falls a central role upon the wave, so that vice versa is valid:

Without wave no vortices, no duality and

consequently no evolution can exist.

According to the to date state of knowledge the basic principle of cybernetics forms the

basis for matter and energy as well as for information. Since the wave can only serve the

transmission of information, the principle of duality and the vortex will function as

carriers of information. We are entitled, to speak of vortex information, this by no means

is characterized by special frequencies or modulations of frequencies. This is prevented by

the property of the vortices which allows them to change the frequency. On the other hand

various configurations of vortices are possible and numerous combinations and modulations

are conceivable.

If technical apparatus generate vortices, then they produce information. Here a serious

danger with regard to the environmental compatibility can not be excluded!

8.9 Philosophy of nature

Seen in the view of the philosophy of nature now two dual points of view are possible.

The optimistic one would be:

We and our environment on the one hand are a result of the cybernetic principle and on

the other hand of our observation point of view which should be valued relativistically.

If really everything should be electromagnetism, a phenomenon which can't be grasped

directly by humans, then the pessimist would come to the conclusion: everythins is

nothing. What we observe is nothins but a deception of the senses. Perhaps therefore

famous philosophers of antiquity, like Empedokles or Demokritos have ended their life in

the crater of the Etna. According to the theory of the atom of Demokritos (470 to 380

B.C.) the formation of matter, earth and celestial bodies will occur by means of formation

of vortices!

Empedokles (482 to 420 B.C.) was the first to develop a theory basing on four elements,

which was continued and improved by Plato (428 to 348 B.C.) and Aristotle (384 to 322

B.C.). Accordingly these elements are changeable into each other and mixable with each

other. From them all bodies are build up.

The terms "air, water, fire and earth", with which the philosophers have described the four

elements, are of course not identical with the ones in our translation and conception world,

but they were used in a philosophical sense as a substitute for the description of the

respective basic principle.

There also have been different approaches, to translate these terms differently, e.g. by an

assignment to the four states of matter (solid, liquid, gaseous, plasma). But the ancient

texts don't get easier to read in that way.

Fig. 8.9 shows the obvious assignment to the four building parts of the fundamental field

equation 5.7. It would be worth an attempt, to exchange the terms in the translations of

ancient texts and to translate air with wave, water with potential vortex and fire with eddy

current. The term earth has two sides, which should be translated with potential instead of

wood and current instead of metal.

Let's try the translation this way with the theory of Plato

*, by correspondingly translating*

anew the talk of Timaios about the formation of the world. The perception of smell then is

described as follows: "...as the potential vortex turns into waves (or) the wave into

potential vortices, the smells are formed during this transition, and smells are smoke or

fog. But fog is the transition of waves into vortices, the transition of the vortex into waves

however smoke".

Plato here provides an indisputable and conclusive interpretation of the fundamental field

equation. In this equation the potential vortex acts as damping term in the wave equation,

what in the case of waves rolling up to vortices will show to the observer in the way that

the electromagnetic waves and therefore also the light will be damped. We say, the

visibility gets worse and speak of fog. If the damping phenomenon disappears again, as

the potential vortices break up, then Plato speaks of smoke.

Numerous ancient texts, which until now only could be "interpreted" philosophically, in

this way turn out to be a rational textbook description of natural scientific phenomena.

They anyway only get readable and understandable for the general public with the modern

technical terms.

anew the talk of Timaios about the formation of the world. The perception of smell then is

described as follows: "...as the potential vortex turns into waves (or) the wave into

potential vortices, the smells are formed during this transition, and smells are smoke or

fog. But fog is the transition of waves into vortices, the transition of the vortex into waves

however smoke".

Plato here provides an indisputable and conclusive interpretation of the fundamental field

equation. In this equation the potential vortex acts as damping term in the wave equation,

what in the case of waves rolling up to vortices will show to the observer in the way that

the electromagnetic waves and therefore also the light will be damped. We say, the

visibility gets worse and speak of fog. If the damping phenomenon disappears again, as

the potential vortices break up, then Plato speaks of smoke.

Numerous ancient texts, which until now only could be "interpreted" philosophically, in

this way turn out to be a rational textbook description of natural scientific phenomena.

They anyway only get readable and understandable for the general public with the modern

technical terms.

## No comments:

Post a Comment