Wednesday, 5 September 2007

8.Unified theory ,first telsa physics infomation for engineers

8. Unified theory
With the theory of objectivity the longed for goal of a "theory of everything" (TOE), of an
universal theory, seems to have moved within reach. If in the nineteenth century still
promising field theories and approaches were being discussed, then has at the latest
Einstein's theory of relativity destroyed all hopes in such a theory. Science as a consequence
has become very much more modest and understands a TOE only as the
unification of all known interactions.
Einstein has stated the minimum demand so: "a theory should be favoured by far, in which
the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field together would appear as a whole"
. It is evident that a subjective or relativistic observer theory never is able to achieve
The presented theory of objectivity made it possible that the unification here for the first
time actually has succeeded. This undoubtedly brings science a whole lot further, but it
still is not sufficient to lie one's hands in one's lap being content with oneself. After all we
still know very much more phenomena, which likewise should be unified. After all it is no
accident that both Maxwell and Einstein, to name only two prominent representatives,
after completion of their well-known works have struggled for the question, what sort of
phenomenon it concerns in the case of the temperature and how this could be integrated in
their theory.
The requirement reads: We must be able to derive all basic factors, which influence our
system of units with their basic units, as a compulsionless result from the new theory.
Besides the dimensions of space and time which determine our continuum, the explanation
and unification of the basic factors mass and charge has to be tackled. If we have
succeeded in doing so, we'll also tackle the problem of the fifth and last basic factor,
which until now has put itself in the way of any unified theory as the question of fate, the
problem of the temperature!

8.1 Structure of the field theory
In contrast to Maxwell's theory the new field theory, which we derived from duality, is
also able to describe fields, in which no particles and no quanta exist. It probably is
justified and useful in the sense of a clearer communication, to give the new field a name
of its own.
The author recommends the introduction of the term "hydrotic field". In it should be
expressed, which importance water has for both the like named potential vortex and this
As we already have worked out, the hydrotic field is favoured particularly by polar
materials and by a high dielectricity. Water is a corresponding and in the biosphere of our
planet dominating material.
Whereas we had to correct the concept of a vortex free electric field, we had until now,
considerable, we can take over the description of the magnetic field unchanged. This then
should also be valid for its name. The new field which consists of both correspondingly is
called hydromagnetic field.
In fig. 8.1 we recognize the structure. At the top stands the "hydromagnetic field", which
is described mathematically by the equations of dual electrodynamics in fig. 3.3. It does
not know quanta and as logical consequence neither charge nor mass! If we insert these
equations, Ampere's law and the dual formulated Faraday law of induction, into each
other, then there results as a mathematical description of our space-time-continuum the
fundamental field equation (5.7, fig. 5.1). As a new physical phenomenon the potential
vortex appears, which gives the hydromagnetic field a new and important property: this
field can be quantized!
Starting-point is the wave, which for corresponding interference effects can spontaneously
roll up to a vortex, which as highly concentrated spherical vortex finds a new right to exist
and finds to a new physical reality.
The in the described manner formed particles show specific properties of their own. We
now are able to attribute them for instance a charge or a mass. And these properties also
can be investigated and described individually and isolated from each other. Thus are
formed the two special cases, strange by nature, on the one hand the well-known, with the
help of the Maxwell equations describable "electromagnetic field" and on the other hand
the new "hydrogravitational field".
If we overlap the results of the two special cases, e.g. by adding the force effects of
electric charges and accelerated masses, then we summarized obtain a field, which we
accordingly should call "electrogravitational". This case is not at all unknown. Already
Niels Bohr in this way has calculated the radii of the electron orbits in the hull of his
model of the atom, to mention only one example. We can summarize:
The hydromagnetic field is the all encompassing and with that most important field. Apart
from that the electromagnetic field of the currents and the eddy currents and the hydrogravitational
field of the potentials and the potential vortices merely describe the two
possible and important special cases. For reasons of pure usefulness for every special
case a characteristic factor of description is introduced, the charge and the mass!

8.2 Unification of the interactions
The discovery and introduction of the hydromagnetic field makes the desired unification
possible, because the electromagnetic resp. Maxwell field, which describes the electromagnetic
interaction, and the hydrogravitational field of the gravitation can be derived
from this field as a consequence of the formation of quanta.
The kind of the interaction is caused by the course of the field lines of the field quanta
which form as spherical vortices: the open field lines make the electromagnetic interaction
possible. And the field, lines with a closed course lead to gravitation. Both are a direct
result of the field dependent speed of light. A more perfect unification seems hardly
As the next step the unification with the strong and the weak interaction is required, but it
could be shown that those don't exist at all. It just concerns misinterpretations with much
fantasy, which should help explain the difference between a wrong theory and the physical
Numerous auxiliary terms for the description of the quantum properties exist, like for
instance mass, charge or Planck's quantum of action. The prerequisite for their usability
naturally is the existence of the quanta. But until these have found to a physical reality, the
auxiliary terms are unnecessary. The hydromagnetic field does not know quanta, quantum
properties or auxiliary descriptions. It will be shown that, according to expectation, also
the temperature is a typical quantum property, which comes within the group of the
auxiliary terms. In this way also the temperature is fitted into the unified theory without
Without the by us for reasons of usefulness introduced auxiliary terms the fundamental
field equation is left with its description of a spatial-temporal principle. If a world
equation should exist, then this field equation 5.7 has the best prerequisites.
For the fundamental field equation the division in four parts is repeated like already for the
hydromagnetic field (fig. 8.1). It likewise consists of four individual parts, the wave (b),
the two vortex phenomena (c and d) and the time independent term (e) (fig. 8.2). Whereas
the duality still is combined in the wave, it comes to light clearly for the vortices to again
be combined in the fourth case. Here arise however potentials and currents, which again
can react and oscillate with each other, for instance as L-C-resonant circuit in an electronic
circuit, with which the principle is repeated.
This principle is shown clearer for the phenomenon of the temperature as in all other
cases. If we start at the top in the picture in fig. 8.2 we have an electromagnetic wave,
which is absorbed and thus becomes a vortex. If the vortex falls apart, then eddy losses are
formed. We observe that the temperature rises and propagates in the well-known manner.
We have arrived in the bottom box, but this again can be taken as the top box for the now
following process, because the equation of heat conduction is a vortex equation of type c
or d! We discover a self-similarity:

8.3 Temperature
Following the atomic view, in the case of heat it concerns kinetic energy of the molecules,
which carry out more or less violent oscillations. In the case of gaseous materials with this
concept, basing on mechanical models, actually successful calculations are possible, like
for instance the speed distribution of gases won by Maxwell from theoretical considerations
concerning probability.
But the attempt to apply the formulas of the kinetic theory of gases to solids and liquids
only succeeds, if additional supplements and improvements are introduced. Since at all
events it concerns temperature, thus the same physical quantity, of course also an uniform
interpretation should be demanded, which in addition should stand in full accord to the
presented design of an integrated theory (TOE).
Against the background of the new theory of objectivity we consider, what happens, if for
instance the local field strength is increased by a flying past particle. The matter located at
this point is contracted for a short time. By coming closer to each other, the individual
elementary vortices mutually reinforce their field and are further compressed. Sometime
this process comes to a standstill, is reversed and swings back.
At the same time every single particle, which in this way carries out an oscillation of size,
has an effect on its neighbours with its field, to also stimulate these to the same oscillation,
but delayed by some time. This phenomenon spreads in all directions. The propagation
only will become stationary, if all neighbouring elementary vortices pulsate with the same
amplitude. It now should be recorded:
The oscillation of contraction of the elementary vortices we call temperature.
Also this thermodynamic state variable therefore is a result of the variable speed of light.
At the absolute zero of temperature no oscillation takes place anymore, whereas the upper
limit lies in infinity. Since the cause for temperature represents an oscillation of the local
electromagnetic field strength around the cosmic field strength, the following phenomena
must be considered as excitation and cause, as dictated by the fundamental field equation
1. Electromagnetic waves (b) are able to stimulate matter particles to synchronous oscillations
of contraction by their alternating field. In doing so energy in form of heat is
transferred to the particles, with the result that their temperature is increased. The wave
is absorbed completely, if the thermal oscillation corresponds with the frequency of the
We speak of thermal radiation.
2. But also the two dual vortices, the eddy current (c) and the potential vortex (d) can
cause oscillations of contraction. This immediately becomes clear, if we consider a
vortex as the special case of the wave, in which the oscillation takes place around a
more or less stationary vortex centre. In the case of the decay of vortices, of the
transition of energy from vortices to matter, the increase in temperature is measurable.
In the case of this process of diffusion we speak of eddy losses and of loss heat.

Answers to open questions of thermodynamics:
1. Temperature occurs independent of the state in which the
matter is (unified theory).
2.Temperature even occurs in solids, where a purely kinetic
interpretation fails (unification).
3. Each elementary particle is carrier of a temperature.
4. Expansion with increasing temperature because of the
increasing need for room for larger amplitude of oscillation
(principle: bi-metal-thermometer).
5. For solids the thermal oscillation of size is primarily passed on
by the electrons in the atomic hull. Good electric conductors
therefore at the same time also have a high thermal conductivity.
(principle: electrical resistance thermometer).
6. For gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason
a kinetic auxiliary description becomes applicable.
7. For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely
lose their enveloping electrons, when they change into the
plasma state.
8.The second law of thermodynamics loses its claim to be
absolute and at best reads: with today's technology we are not
capable, to design a cyclic working machine, which does
nothing else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to
convert it into mechanical work.

3. Flying past particles, in particular unbound and free movable charge carriers (e)
produce an alternating field for other fixed particles. Doing so kinetic energy can be
transformed in temperature, thus in energy of pulsation. A good example is the inelastic
collision. But it can also be pointed to numerous chemical reactions. Whoever searches
for a concrete example, takes two objects in his hands and rubs them against one
another. In that case the particles which are at the frictional surfaces are being moved
past each other in very small distance, in this way causing oscillations of pulsation,
which propagate into the inside of the objects according to the thermal conductivity. We
speak of friction heat.
This model concept provides sound explanations for a whole number of open questions
(fig. 8.4), i.e. why the temperature occurs independent of the state (1) and even in solids,
where a purely kinetic interpretation fails (2). Every single elementary particle after all is
carrier of a temperature (3).
With increasing temperature most materials expand, because the need for room, purely
geometrically seen, increases for larger amplitude of oscillation (4). This principle is used
in the case of a bi-metal thermometer.
In the case of solids the thermal oscillation of size is passed on primarily by the electrons
in the atomic hull (5). Good electric conductors therefore at the same time also have a high
thermal conductivity. An example of an application is the electric resistance thermometer.
In the case of gases the entire atoms carry out this task, for which reason a kinetic theory
becomes applicable as an auxiliary description (6).
For extreme amplitudes of oscillation the atoms partly or entirely lose their enveloping
electrons, when they change into the plasma state (7).
Finally the model concept even limits the second law of thermodynamics, which contains
the postulate that it is impossible to design a cyclic working machine, which does nothing
else, as to withdraw heat from a heat container and to convert it into mechanical work (8).
8.4 Heat energy
The discussed oscillation of contraction shows two characteristic properties, which must
be looked at separately: the amplitude and the frequency.___________________________
Temperature describes solely the amplitude of the oscillation of size.
The heat energy however is determined by both,
by the amplitude as well as by the frequency.
Consequently the ideas of temperature and heat energy should be kept strictly apart. It
therefore isn't allowed to set this oscillation equal to the electromagnetic wave in tables of
To be correct two tables should be given, one for the wave, characterized by a propagation
with the speed of light, and another one for oscillations of contraction, thus for stationary
phenomena and phenomena bound to matter. The latter indeed can likewise propagate
relatively fast by fluctuations of pressure in the case of acoustical sound frequencies or by
free movable charge carriers in the case of heat conduction, but the velocity of
propagation for sound or heat is as is well-known still considerably smaller than the speed
of light. Thus an assignment without doubts can be made as to which kind of oscillation it

8.5 Sound
The close relationship of longitudinal sound waves with the oscillations of contraction of
thermally heated matter becomes particularly clear for ultrasound, where the arising heat
in the inside of the body which is exposed to sound can be measured directly. The fundamental
difference consists of the fact that the produced sound waves not only have the
same frequency, but also the same phase, what needs not be the case for the temperature.
The apparently uncoordinated occurring oscillations of size of the temperature, which as a
rule occupy more space if the intensity increases, form a "thermal noise".
The oscillation of size with the same phase is not realizable at all in a spatial formation of
particles, with one exception, the case that all particles expand and afterwards again
contract simultaneously and in the same time. We can observe such a synchronization of
the pulsation oscillations of all elementary vortices in the case of a pulsar. For us a pulsar
looks like a "lighthouse" in space which shines with a fixed frequency.
In reality it as well can concern a constantly shining sun, which carries out a synchronized,
thermal oscillation of size, like a gigantic low-frequency loudspeaker. During the phase of
contraction of the star its emitted light stays back. To us the pulsar looks dark. In addition
the field strength is extremely increased and the light becomes correspondingly slow.
During the phase of expansion the conditions are reversed and we observe a light flash.
Exactly the pulsar unambiguously confirms the here presented theory of the variable, field
dependent speed of light.
The well-known fact that the microcosm represents a copy of the macrocosm, already
suggests that each atom is capable of the same oscillation of size as a pulsar: if next to the
oscillating atom a resting one is placed, then does this one see a smaller field during the
phase of contraction because of the increasing distance. It hence becomes bigger itself. If
the pulsating neighbouring atom afterwards expands, it however becomes smaller. The at
first resting atom in this way becomes a "pulsar" oscillating with opposite phase.
The oscillating atom has stimulated the neighbouring atom as well to an oscillation of size,
and this process will be repeated with the closest neighbouring atom. We speak of heat
To which extent the average distance between neighbouring atoms is influenced while a
material is heated, solely depends on the structure of the atomic lattice. For matter with a
fixed lattice according to expectation a smaller heat expansion will occur, as for the
unordered structure of gases, in which we find confirmed well-known relations.
In a for potential vortices characteristic property sound waves and thermal waves of
contraction correspond:

8.6 Basic principle of cybernetics
Surely can be attributed also information to the potential vortex. But how should information
be formed? Is information a form of energy? Energy occurs as a consequence of
the formation of potential vortices. Without this phenomenon there wouldn't be any
Can information be described by means of a mathematical equation?
To be able to answer these questions, we subject the fundamental field equation to a
control technical analysis. If it actually concerns a world equation, then an answers should
be possible.
We again take up Ampere's law 5.1* from fig. 5.1 and remodel it according to the time
derivative (5.1**). If the equation now is integrated over the time (5.1***), a signal flow
diagram can be drawn (fig. 8.6).
The structure of a regulatory circuit is clearly visible. The individual paragraphs are
described in an analogous way as for a technical control system. The execution of the curl
operation on the field pointer of the magnetic field strength H and the multiplication with
accordingly form an adaptation of driving factors. In the comparator the difference for
control from driving factor w and controlling factor x is formed and supplied to an
integral controller. The control path has a purely proportional behaviour and consists of
the processing of the measurement value of the electric field strength E with in which
describes the relaxation time of the eddy currents.
In technical control systems such a structure is found remarkably seldom, although it has
an invaluable advantage: it possesses a stability in principle. Not a single adjustment of
the controller exists, in which the closed regulatory circuit could become unstable,
because it shows a proportionally delaying behaviour of first order. Possible changes of
the adjustment of the controller or of the control path merely take effect on the speed, with
which the regulatory circuit is able to follow changes of the driving factor.
This control technical basic principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. It meets
us again in identical form in the second field equation 5.4*, the extended Faraday's law of
induction. In dual formulation the electric field strength now appears as input factor and
the magnetic field strength as output factor. Both regulatory circuits are coupled and
connected with each other, by deriving their driving factor each time from the controlling
factor of their dual partner. Is this structure actually efficient and meaningful?
Every regulatory circuit needs a target value, which is dictated from the outside. Let us
think of the numerous control systems in nature. At all events a higher intelligence would
be necessary for all the target values. This problematic is comparable to the question, what
existed first: the egg from which a hen hatches or the hen without which no eggs can exist.
Without a given target, evolution would not exist.
The connected regulatory circuit structure provides the matching answer: cybernetic
systems, which usually and as is well-known strive to a state of balance, get their target
value from their dual "partner". It is crucial that correspondingly dual systems are selfsufficient
and can form and develop independently out of themselves without target values
of a third side. This basic principle of cybernetics undoubtedly is brilliant.

8.7 Adaptive regulatory circuit structure
If out of the nowhere something like the cosmos or like life on earth should form, then the
connected regulatory circuit structure basing on duality probably is the only possible and
conceivable. Thus it merely concerns the control technical representation of the fundamental
field equation.
The question for the efficiency not only concerns the stability, but equally the possibility
of both systems, to oscillate and to communicate with each other by the coupling and the
associated exchange of information.
Fig. 8.7 shows the signal flow diagram of both regulatory circuits. These are switched in
line and form a coupled circuit, which itself can be interpreted as a third regulatory circuit.
Also this one shows a change of sign in the circuit like the other two circuits.
The information technical interpretation could turn out as follows: information about a
regulatory process in the lower regulatory circuit F11 caused for instance by a disturbance
is communicated over the coupled circuit to the upper regulatory circuit FJ2. In this case
F11 acts as transmitter and F12 as receiver of the information. Afterwards both exchange
their places, because F12 for its part reacts by a regulatory process and reports to F11. The
regulatory circuits adapt to each other. Obviously it concerns the basic structure of an
adaptive regulatory circuit.
To analyse the coupled circuit the examination of individual special cases is
recommended. If the regulatory circuits F11 and F12 are opened up in the way that the time
constants tau1 and tau2 go towards infinity, then the double integral effect is left. Analyses of
technical regulatory circuit teach us that such systems always tend to instability. Because
in addition the target value is zero, an oscillation around zero will arise, which we call
electromagnetic wave.
If one of both time constants becomes finite, e.g. then damping of the waves will occur.
The "subordinate" cascade regulatory circuit F12 will adjust itself and now has a proportional
delaying behaviour of first order. Together with the integral controller of the open
F11- circuit the coupled circuit will show the typical and more or less optimal regulatory
behaviour of a damped oscillation.
These special cases correspond with the mathematical (fig. 5.2) and the physical (fig. 5.3)
interpretation of the fundamental field equation. In addition a spatial rotation, a swirling
will occur because of the double execution of the curl operation.
If interpreted control technically then vortices are the temporally stable, spatial swing of a
field pointer around a centre, the vortex centre.
Without potential vortices no stability, no matter, no energy nor information would exist!
As can be looked up in Goethe's Faust, it always has been a desire of humanity, to find
out, "what keeps the world together in the heart of hearts".

8.8 Information
The search for an answer for numerous philosophers and physicists was tantamount to the
search for a world formula. Of course mustn't be forgotten that a formula only is a
mathematical description and never the physical reality itself. It is a mathematical tool in
the hand of a person and not the world or the cosmos itself, which he tries to understand.
What keeps the world together in the heart of hearts, has to be more than only a pure
apparatus of formulas. Actually the fundamental field equation tells us more. It reveals us
a basic principle basing on duality in which the dual partners mutually dictate target
values and goals. This principle convinces by its simplicity and efficiency. Apart from the
"self regulation" it obviously also has the fundamental possibility of a "self
organization" and the "generation of information". The field equations of the
hydromagnetic field thus are the starting-point for the formation not only of matter and
energy, but also of information. Accordingly holds:
Information is nothing but a structure of electromagnetic vortex fields!
This statement is new and to a large extent incompatible with the conception world of
Norbert Wiener, who goes as the founder of cybernetics. From N. Wiener stems the
sentence: "information is information, not matter and not energy".
We hold against it that obviously a fairly direct connection exists. We have worked out
that only the vortex can show a stable adaptive regulatory circuit structure. Only the
vortex and not the wave exists in two forms of formation dual to each other, and the
principle of duality again is the prerequisite for the formation of information, of self
organization and finally for the evolution. In fig. 8.8 well-known dual partnerships are
listed. From it follows in a consistent way that for the production of information without
exception the electromagnetic vortices should be considered.
But how can this so important duality occur, how can it form? This question is closely
associated with the question of the formation of vortices. The signal flow diagram (fig.
8.7) to that says that the dual regulatory circuits F1 and F2 can only exist by the coupled
circuit, which provides them the necessary target values and at the same time forwards the
respective information. In this way of the oscillations and the more or less damped wave
F1 and F2 communicate with each other.
The electromagnetic wave serves solely the
mediation of information and energy.
With that falls a central role upon the wave, so that vice versa is valid:
Without wave no vortices, no duality and
consequently no evolution can exist.
According to the to date state of knowledge the basic principle of cybernetics forms the
basis for matter and energy as well as for information. Since the wave can only serve the
transmission of information, the principle of duality and the vortex will function as
carriers of information. We are entitled, to speak of vortex information, this by no means
is characterized by special frequencies or modulations of frequencies. This is prevented by
the property of the vortices which allows them to change the frequency. On the other hand
various configurations of vortices are possible and numerous combinations and modulations
are conceivable.
If technical apparatus generate vortices, then they produce information. Here a serious
danger with regard to the environmental compatibility can not be excluded!

8.9 Philosophy of nature
Seen in the view of the philosophy of nature now two dual points of view are possible.
The optimistic one would be:
We and our environment on the one hand are a result of the cybernetic principle and on
the other hand of our observation point of view which should be valued relativistically.
If really everything should be electromagnetism, a phenomenon which can't be grasped
directly by humans, then the pessimist would come to the conclusion: everythins is
nothing. What we observe is nothins but a deception of the senses. Perhaps therefore
famous philosophers of antiquity, like Empedokles or Demokritos have ended their life in
the crater of the Etna. According to the theory of the atom of Demokritos (470 to 380
B.C.) the formation of matter, earth and celestial bodies will occur by means of formation
of vortices!
Empedokles (482 to 420 B.C.) was the first to develop a theory basing on four elements,
which was continued and improved by Plato (428 to 348 B.C.) and Aristotle (384 to 322
B.C.). Accordingly these elements are changeable into each other and mixable with each
other. From them all bodies are build up.
The terms "air, water, fire and earth", with which the philosophers have described the four
elements, are of course not identical with the ones in our translation and conception world,
but they were used in a philosophical sense as a substitute for the description of the
respective basic principle.
There also have been different approaches, to translate these terms differently, e.g. by an
assignment to the four states of matter (solid, liquid, gaseous, plasma). But the ancient
texts don't get easier to read in that way.
Fig. 8.9 shows the obvious assignment to the four building parts of the fundamental field
equation 5.7. It would be worth an attempt, to exchange the terms in the translations of
ancient texts and to translate air with wave, water with potential vortex and fire with eddy
current. The term earth has two sides, which should be translated with potential instead of
wood and current instead of metal.
Let's try the translation this way with the theory of Plato, by correspondingly translating
anew the talk of Timaios about the formation of the world. The perception of smell then is
described as follows: " the potential vortex turns into waves (or) the wave into
potential vortices, the smells are formed during this transition, and smells are smoke or
fog. But fog is the transition of waves into vortices, the transition of the vortex into waves
however smoke".
Plato here provides an indisputable and conclusive interpretation of the fundamental field
equation. In this equation the potential vortex acts as damping term in the wave equation,
what in the case of waves rolling up to vortices will show to the observer in the way that
the electromagnetic waves and therefore also the light will be damped. We say, the
visibility gets worse and speak of fog. If the damping phenomenon disappears again, as
the potential vortices break up, then Plato speaks of smoke.
Numerous ancient texts, which until now only could be "interpreted" philosophically, in
this way turn out to be a rational textbook description of natural scientific phenomena.
They anyway only get readable and understandable for the general public with the modern
technical terms.

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